RamilHUSEYNOV
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ABOUT

PERSONAL DETAILS
Baku, Azerbaijan
mapiconimg
ranonim@hotmail.com
+994 55 640 44 55
Hello. I am Ramil , Welcome to my Personal profile

Hey guys, let me introduce myself Ramil HUSEYNOV.

I am an innovative Construction Project Management and Civil Engineer with a Comprehensive Knowledge and experience in the construction Industry, (Commercial
Bldgs., Mixed-use Bldgs., Residential Bldgs., 5 Star Hotels.

An effective communicator with good relationship management, man management skills

Capable to work under pressure situations to meet deadlines and experienced in working under multi-cultural and multi lingual environments.

EDUCATION
  • 2001
    2005
    BAKU, AZERBAIJAN

    UNIVERSITY

    AZERBAIJAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

    FACULTY: Mechanical engineering and processing of mater
  • 1990
    2001
    MINGACHEVIR, AZERBAIJAN

    SCHOOL

    SCHOOL #1

    Secondary General School
PROFESSIONAL WORK
  • 2014
    2015
    BAKU, AZERBAIJAN

    CONSTRUCTION MANAGER

    MACE GROUP AZERBAIJAN

    Trump® International Hotel & Tower Baku.
  • 2013
    2014
    BAKU, AZERBAIJAN

    CONSTRUCTION MANAGER

    MACE GROUP AZERBAIJAN

    The National Gymnastics Arena
  • 2009
    2013
    BAKU, AZERBAIJAN

    CONSTRUCTION MANAGER / ASSISTANT TO CONSTRUCTION DIRECTOR

    Port Baku Residence

    Port Baku Residence
  • 2007
    2009
    BAKU, AZERBAIJAN

    TECHNICAL OFFICE ENGINEER

    TML CONSTRUCTION CO.

    BAKU CLOCK TOWERS
  • 2006
    2007
    BAKU, AZERBAIJAN

    TECHNICAL OFFICE ENGINEER

    TML CONSTRUCTION CO.

    BAKU CITY GARDENS PROJECT
  • 2009
    2009
    BAKU, AZERBAIJAN

    SITE ENGINEER

    PORT BAKU TOWER

    PORT BAKU TOWER
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SKILLS

COMPUTER SKILLS
web development >
LEVEL : INTERMEDIATE EXPERIENCE : 2 YEARS
PHP HTML
office programs >
LEVEL : INTERMEDIATE EXPERIENCE : 8 YEARS
word excell power point outlook
DESIGN SKILLS
Web design >
LEVEL : INTERMEDIATE EXPERIENCE : 5 YEARS
Adobe Photoshop adobe dreamviewer
LANGUAGES
Language skills >
LEVEL : INTERMEDIATE EXPERIENCE : 7 years
Azerbaijani Russian English
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PROJECTS

PROJECTS I WORKED
Port Baku Towers

PORT BAKU TOWER

PORT BAKU TOWER

About The Project

Providing the highest quality international Class A office space, Port Baku Towers consists of two adjacent commercial towers.

The North Tower is the new headquarters of the leading energy company in the region, who occupy the entire building. Space within the landmark South Tower, with its commanding views across the Bay of Baku, is much in demand and has been occupied by the most respected local, and international, companies.

The appeal of Port Baku Towers has been further enhanced by the addition of a world class 8,000 m2 fitness centre and spa whilst an adjacent, fully pedestrianised boulevard, running between the offices and Port Baku Mall, is populated by a wide variety of attractive restaurants and cafes.

Gross Internal Area: 130,000 SM

Baku City Gardens Project

BAKU CITY GARDENS PROJECT

BAKU CITY GARDENS PROJECT

About The Project
City Gardens
Baku City Gardens Project

ATKINS is happy to present a unique residential complex – City Gardens, covering an area of more than 2 hectares of which 75% is dedicated to gardens, lawns, fountains and magnificent open air swimming pools.

The complex is equipped with its own Sports and Entertainment Club, which comprises: indoor pools; a spa and solarium; gymnasium and aerobics hall; indoor sports arena for football, basketball, volleyball and bowling; billiard room; 8-seater cinema; and, a big ‘hall of actions’ with a capacity for more than 250 persons.

Each high specification, business class apartment is provided with two residential parking spaces in the underground parking, as well as additional guest parking spaces in a separate designated area.

The provision of services and the management and of the complex will be undertaken by highly qualified personnel, trained in some of the most luxurious hotels of the United Arab Emirates.

Baku Clock Towers Project

BAKU CLOCK TOWERS

BAKU CLOCK TOWERS

Trump® International Hotel & Tower Baku

TRUMP® INTERNATIONAL HOTEL & TOWER BAKU

TRUMP® INTERNATIONAL HOTEL & TOWER BAKU

About The Project
TRUMP® INTERNATIONAL HOTEL & TOWER BAKU
TRUMP® INTERNATIONAL HOTEL & TOWER BAKU

Trump® International Hotel & Tower Baku. The 33-floor landmark will be located on Hasan Aliyev Street in the Nasimi District of Baku, Azerbaijan, and feature 75 ultra-luxury residences and 190 hotel guestrooms. With its incredible location, spectacular views of the city and Caspian Sea, advanced design elements and superior amenities, Trump Baku will set a new standard for excellence in the region when it opens in 2015.

“Trump International Hotel & Tower Baku represents the unwavering standard of excellence of The Trump Organization and our involvement in only the best global development projects,” said Donald J. Trump, chairman and president of The Trump Organization. “When we open in 2015, visitors and residents will experience a luxurious property unlike anything else in Baku — it will be among the finest in the world.”

National Gymnastics Arena
National Gymnastics Arena - Baku

NATIONAL GYMNASTICS ARENA

NATIONAL GYMNASTICS ARENA

National Gymnastics Arena
About The Project
National Gymnastics Arena
National Gymnastics Arena

The National Gymnastics Arena will be a circa 9,000 seater Arena close to the Koroglu Metro station on the Heydar Aliyev Highway, which is the main route in and out of the city from the Airport.

The NGA is primarily designed to host Rhythmic and Artistic Gymnastics at competition level. The Arena is specifically designed to be able to adapt the Main Arena to host a variety of functions or sporting events if required. The Arena has the ability to stretch from 5,000 to 9,000 seats, depending on the size and the nature of the event it would be hosting. A very impressive design has been implemented on the seats that retract in and out of the arena floor to provide required seating for the event. With this technology the Arena can be large and grand to host big events, and small and intimate for smaller events such as Rhythmic Gymnastics.

On a day to day basis the NGA will be able to host gymnasts training for International competitions. The facilities for training gymnasts will include offices / training halls / auditoriums canteens / gymnasium. There are also boarding facilities at the Arena for athletes which can guest 59 persons. A cafeteria has also been included for athletes training at the Arena on a daily basis.

As for the arena facilities, there will be 2 main concourse levels with welfare facilities and food and beverage outlets, between them on the middle level of the arena will be the box level, which will host the VIP’s in the various size luxury boxes. The box level also has two large cafeterias on each wing to accommodate large VIP/Sponsors gatherings during the events.

When the NGA hosts international competitions there will be all the requirements for international media and sponsors expected of today’s world class sporting venues, from interview rooms and media control center and sponsor rooms to media press rooms.

Port Baku Residence

PORT BAKU RESIDENCE

PORT BAKU RESIDENCE

About The Project
Port Baku Residence Project
Port Baku Residence Project

Port Baku Residence is a mixed use development on prestigious Neftchilar avenue, featuring top quality, high end residential and retail units.

With over 2,000 car park spaces and a total built up area of 375,000SM, facilities and services would include 24 hour concierge and security, gym and wellness complex and multipurpose convention rooms.

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Narmin Narmin wrote on February 8, 2017 at 4:35 pm:
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The perfect website of the perfect man!😉👍 I wish you every success! 😊
Admin Reply by: Rupino
Thanks, Narmin. Good luck to you!☀️
Nirvana Nirvana wrote on February 8, 2017 at 4:31 pm:
Novruz Novruz from Baku wrote on February 8, 2017 at 4:31 pm:
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Admin Reply by: Rupino
Thanks Dear Novruz! 😎
Rauf Rauf from Baku wrote on January 15, 2017 at 5:46 pm:
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LATEST UPDATES

USEFUL LINKS

The Agreement has been signed in Gulistan Palace of Baku on September 20, 1994 which was later named as the Contract of the Century due to its tremendous importance. Production Sharing Agreement related to the development of “Azeri – Chirag – Guneshli” deepwater oil fields has been reflected on 400 pages and 4 languages. 13 companies (Amoco, BP, McDermott, Unocal, SOCAR, LukOil, Statoil, Exxon, TPAO, Pennzoil, Itochu, Ramco, Delta) from 8 countries (Azerbaijan, USA, Great-Britain, Russia, Turkey, Norway, Japan, Saudi Arabia) have participated in signing of the Contract of the Century. This Contract has paved the way towards to the signature of other 26 contracts with 41 oil companies from 19 countries.

After the signature of the Contract of the Century, the parties to this document have established working structures – the Steering Committee, Azerbaijan International Operating Company (AIOC) and the Consulting Council. They have initiated its activities as they have been granted with legal competencies at the basis of the Special Decree signed by the President of Azerbaijan on December 2, 1994.

The speech made by President Heydar Aliyev at the signing ceremony of the Contract of the Century on September 20, 1994 is a meaningful historic document which enables us to use the language of political analysis and not just of the political interests. It reflects many principal key points and sound thinking laid in the core of intentions and decisions made by head of the Azerbaijani State.

Heydar Aliyev has recalled to the participants the importance of the past – the history of Baku oil industries which is known by principal achievements and useful consequences. Going point by point, his speech has consisted of solid milestones.

“The Development of oil industry … gave a strong impetus to the development of Baku and Azerbaijan as a whole”.

“The Democratic State was created … in 1918. This State has strived to use the resources which belong to the people to its wellbeing”.

Later on, “the Soviet Socialist regime has been established. … Azerbaijan lived in the conditions of that regime being as a part of the Soviet Union. The most important wealth of Azerbaijan – the Oil has been used in the interests of the Soviet Union”.

“Starting from 1920, drastic changes have occurred in the destiny of Azerbaijan. The economy of Azerbaijan has been developing and the strong industrial potential has been created in the Republic. Our oil industry has passed long historical pathway.”

I think that it is necessary to bring today this fact into the attention of our guests and recall it in front of the Azerbaijani people. It is the pride and the glory of the Azerbaijani people which says about the achievement of our people, our oil workers in world economy.”

“Azerbaijan became the Independent Republic… A new epoch has begun in the life of Azerbaijan. And the history of our oil industry has got a new foundation, that’s to say, the third stage… During the new stage, expressing the will of the Azerbaijani people, we undertake necessary measures to use its natural resources”.

“The economy of Azerbaijan is in deep crisis. Big difficulties have also emerged in oil industry. All of us must unite efforts, work hand-in-hand to implement the Contract, sort out from this crisis, develop Azerbaijani economy and to elevate the wellbeing of people to the necessary level”.

The Contract of the Century has made the history as the first comprehensive economic decision taken by Heydar Aliyev which has defined the main priority in the policy of his Presidential administration – the oil strategy. But even under those times, the significance of the Contract of the Century was not limited to the expected financial profits. Early 90-ies, Azerbaijan has started to get out gradually from the catastrophic situation at the basis of Heydar Aliyev’s project as well as the complexity of unnamed reasons which were always present in his policies and were seen by his wise supporters. In those years, the Azerbaijani State had to inherit the historical Azerbaijani statehood by assuming full responsibility not only for its own short period of existence, but also all experience of the Azerbaijani history. In this light, the Contract of the Century of the Century became the quintessence philosophy which united the consistent ideas of those times and values laid down in the heart of the Heydar Aliyev policy – to serve for the sake of people’s wellbeing.

Heydar Aliyev was traditional in his thinking. He sought himself as spearheading the classic style mission to run the democratic policy taking its roots from the antiquity – Plato and Aristotle. The purpose of such policy is to ensure the wealth for the nation and not the personal freedom to individuals.

The Contract of the Century has inevitably led to the changes of social actions scale in Azerbaijan: the nation has got a chance to leave chaos and collapse behind by influx of large financial means inside the country – the Azerbaijani nation has been given the vital mission with its concrete contents. Its importance has envisaged implementing the effective modernization with two significant conditions: to preserve the independence and use moral and spiritual forces of the people. The Contract of the Century became the driving force of such exact modernization which was seen as the outing of practical energy of any individual while the control over processes was continuously ensured by the State. In this understanding, the meaningful word of “the Contract” got a long-term operational meaning.

After several years, the implementation of the Contract of the Century gives sound grounds to think about the potential force of the Azerbaijani people. This force depends on invisible reserves of human energy, strong will and aspirations towards the greater achievements.

Source: President.Az

 

Source: President.Az

 

The Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan

Continuing the centuries-long statehood traditions, taking as a basis the principles expressed in the Constitution act “On the State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan”, desiring to provide prosperity and welfare of the whole society and each individual, wishing to establish freedom and security, understanding the responsibility before the past, present and future generations, using the right of its sovereignty declares solemnly its following intentions:

  – to protect the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Azerbaijan;

  – to provide a democratic system within the frames of the Constitution;

  – to achieve the establishment of a civil society;

  – to build a law-based, secular state to provide the command of law as an expression of the will of the nation;

  – to provide a worthy life level for everybody in conformity with just economic and social order;

  – to remain faithful to universal human values, to live in peace and freedom with all the nations of the world and co-operate with them for this purpose.

Having in mind the above-enumerated sincere intentions the Present Constitution is adopted through the general poll of population referendum.

CONTENTS

FIRST SECTION: GENERAL

Chapter I. PEOPLE’S POWER
Chapter II. BASIS OF STATE

SECOND SECTION: BASIC RIGHTS, LIBERTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

Chapter III. BASIC RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES OF A PERSON AND CITIZEN
Chapter IV. MAIN RESPONSIBILITIES OF CITIZENS

THIRD SECTION: STATE POWER

Chapter V. LEGISLATIVE POWER
Chapter VI. EXECUTIVE POWER
Chapter VII. JUDICIAL POWER
Chapter VIII. NAKHICHEVAN AUTONOMOUS REPUBLIC

FORTH SECTION: LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT

Chapter IX. MUNICIPALITIES

FIFTH SECTION: THE RIGHT AND THE LAW

Chapter X. LEGISLATIVE SYSTEM
Chapter XI. CHANGES IN CONSTITUTION OF THE AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC
Chapter XII. AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC

TRANSITIONAL CLAUSES

Chapter I. PEOPLE’S POWER

Article 1. The source of power

I. The sole source of state power in the Azerbaijan Republic are the people of Azerbaijan.

II. People of Azerbaijan are citizens of the Azerbaijan Republic living on the territory of the Az-erbaijan Republic and outside it who are subordinate to the Azerbaijan state and its laws which does not exclude standards of international legislation.

Article 2. Sovereignty of people

I. Sovereign right of the Azerbaijanian people is the right of free and independent determination of their destiny and establishment of their own form of governance.

II. The people of Azerbaijan exercise their sovereign right directly-by way of nation-wide voting-referendum, and through their representatives elected based on universal, equal and direct suffrage by way of free, secret and personal ballot.

Article 3. Questions solved by way of nation-wide voting-referendum

I. People of Azerbaijan may solve any questions involving their rights and interests by way of referendum.

II. The following questions may be solved only by way of referendum:

1. acceptance of the Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic and introduction of amendments thereto;

2. change of state borders of the Azerbaijan Republic.

III. The referendum can not be held with respect to the following issues:

1. Taxation and state budget

2. Amnesty and pardon

3. “Election, appointment or approval of the officials, whose election, appointment or approval has been accordingly referred to the competences of the legislative and (or) executive bodies”.

Article 4. Right to represent the people

No one except authorized representatives elected by the people will have the right to represent the people, speak on behalf of people and to make statements on behalf of people.

Article 5. Unity of people

I. The people of Azerbaijan are united

II. Unity of the Azerbaijanian people constitutes the basis of the Azerbaijanian state. Azerbaijan Republic is mutual and indivisible motherland for all citizens of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 6.Inadmissibility of usurpation of power

I. No part of people of Azerbaijan, no social group or organization, no individual may usurp the right for execution of power.

II. Usurpation of power is the most grave crime against the people.

Chapter II. BASIS OF STATE

Article 7. Azerbaijanian state

1. Azerbaijanian state is democratic, legal, secular, unitary republic.

II. In terms of internal problems state power in the Azerbaijan Republic is limited only by law, in terms of foreign policy-by provisions resulting from international agreements, wherein the Azerbaijan Republic is one of the parties.

III. State power in the Azerbaijan Republic is based on a principle of division of powers:

· Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic exercises legislative power;

· executive power belongs to the President of the Azerbaijan Republic;

· law courts of the Azerbaijan Republic exercise judicial power.

IV. According to provisions of the present Constitution legislative, executive and judicial power interact and are independent within the limits of their authority.

Article 8. The Head of the Azerbaijanian state

I. The President of the Azerbaijan Republic is the Head of the Azerbaijanian state. He represents Azerbaijanian state both within the country and in its relations with foreign countries.

II. The President of the Azerbaijan Republic represents unity of Azerbaijanian people and provides continuity of the Azerbaijanian statehood.

III. The President of the Azerbaijan Republic is guarantor of independence and territorial integrity of the Azerbaijanian state, observance of international agreements wherein the Azerbaijan Republic is one of the parties.

IV. The President of the Azerbaijan Republic is guarantor of independence of judicial power.

Article 9. Military forces

I. In order to provide its safety and defend itself the Azerbaijan Republic establishes Military forces and other military troops

II. The Azerbaijan Republic rejects a war as a means of infringement on independence of other states and way of settlement of international conflicts.

III. The President of the Azerbaijan Republic is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of Military Forces of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 10. Principles of international relations

AzerbaijanRepublicdevelops its relations with other countries based on principles recognized in international legal standards.

Article 11. Territory

I. The territory of the Azerbaijan Republic is sole, inviolable and indivisible.

II. Internal waters of the Azerbaijan Republic, sector of the Caspian Sea (lake) belonging to the Azerbaijan Republic, air space over the Azerbaijan Republic are integral parts of the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic.

III. No part of territory of the Azerbaijan Republic may be estranged. The Azerbaijan Republic will not give any part of its territory to anybody; state borders of the Azerbaijan Republic might be changed only by free decision of its peoples made by way of referendum declared by Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 12. The highest priority objective of the state

I. The highest priority objective of the state is to provide rights and liberties of a person and citizen.

II. Rights and liberties of a person and citizen listed in the present Constitution are implemented in accordance with international treaties wherein the Azerbaijan Republic is one of the parties.

Article 13. Property

I. The property in the Azerbaijan Republic is inviolable and is protected by state.

II. The property may be state, private and municipal.

III. The property may not be used for restriction of rights and liberties of a person and citizen, interests of society and state, dignity of a person.

Article 14. Natural resources

Without prejudice to rights and interests of any physical persons and legal entities natural resources belong to the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 15. Economic development and state

I. Development of economy based on various forms of property in the Azerbaijan Republic is aimed to prosperity of people.

II. Based on market relationships the Azerbaijanian state creates conditions for development of economy, guarantees free business activity, prevents monopoly and unfair competition in economic relations.

Article 16. Social development and state

I. Azerbaijanian state takes care about improvement of prosperity of all people and each citizen, their social protection and proper living conditions.

II. Azerbaijanian state participates in development of culture, education, public health, science, arts, protects environment, historical, material and spiritual heritage of people.

Article 17. Family and state

I. Family as a basic element of society is under special protection of the state.

II. Parents must take care of their children and their education. The state controls implementation of this responsibility.

Article 18. Religion and state

I. Religion in the Azerbaijan Republic is separated from state. All religions are equal before the law.

II. Spreading and propaganda of religions humiliating people’ dignity and contradicting the principles of humanism are prohibited.

III. State educational system is secular.

Article 19. Monetary unit

I. Monetary unit of the Azerbaijan Republic is manat.

II. Only National Bank has the right of introducing money into circulation and withdrawal them from circulation. National Bank of the Azerbaijan Republic belongs exclusively to the state.

III. Use of other monetary units, besides manat, on the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic is prohibited.

Article 20. Restrictions concerning state debts

Debts made with intention of assisting in revolts against the Azerbaijanian state or coup shall not be accepted by the Azerbaijan Republic as liabilities and paid.

Article 21. Official language

I. Azerbaijanian language is official language of the Azerbaijan Republic. Azerbaijan Republic provides development of the Azerbaijanian language.

II. Azerbaijan Republic ensures free use and development of other languages spoken by the people.

Article 22. Capital

Bakuis the capital of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 23. Symbols of the Azerbaijanian state

I. State flag of the Azerbaijan Republic, State Emblem of the Azerbaijan Republic and State hymn of the Azerbaijan Republic are state symbols of the Azerbaijan Republic.

II. State flag of the Azerbaijan Republic consists of three horizontal stripes of same width. Upper stripe is blue, middle stripe is red, and the lower one is green; in the middle of red stripe on both sides of the flag white crescent with eight-pointed star are depicted. Width of the flag constitutes half of its length.

III. Appearance of state flag of the Azerbaijan Republic and State Emblem of the Azerbaijan Republic, music and text of State hymn of the Azerbaijan Republic are specified by Constitutional Law of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Chapter III. BASIC RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES OF A PERSON AND CITIZEN

Article 24. Main principle of rights and liberties of a person and citizen

I. Everyone, from the moment when they are born possess inviolable and inalienable rights and liberties.

II. Rights and liberties envisage also responsibility and obligations of everyone to the society and other persons.

Article 25. Right for equality

I. All people are equal with respect to the law and law court.

II. Men and women possess equal rights and liberties.

III. The state guarantees equality of rights and liberties of everyone, irrespective of race, nationality, religion, language, sex, origin, financial position, occupation, political convictions, membership in political parties, trade unions and other public organizations. Rights and liberties of a person, citizen cannot be restricted due to race, nationality, religion, language, sex, origin, conviction, political and social belonging.

Article 26. Protection of rights and liberties of a person and citizen

I. Everyone has the right to protect his/her rights and liberties using means and methods not prohibited by law.

II. The state guarantees protection of rights and liberties of all people.

Article 27. Right for life

I. Everyone has the right for life.

II. Except extermination of enemy soldiers in a case of military aggression, when executing the sentence and in other cases envisaged by law, right of every person for life is inviolable.

III. Death penalty, until it is completely annulled, may be applied legally only in cases of especially grave crime against the state, life and health of a human being.

IV. Arms shall not be used against human beings except cases of necessary defence, urgent situations, whenever a criminal should be caught, to prevent a prisoner from running away, to prevent revolt against the state or coup.

Article 28. Right for freedom

I. Everyone has the right for freedom.

II. Right for freedom might be restricted only as specified by law, by way of detention, arrest or imprisonment.

III. Everyone legally being on the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic may travel without restrictions, choose the place of residence and travel abroad.

IV. Any citizen of the Azerbaijan Republic has the right to return to his/her country whenever he/she so desires.

Article 29. Ownership right

I. Everyone has the right to own property.

II. Neither kind of property has priority. Ownership right including right for private owners is protected by law.

III. Everyone might possess movable and real property. Right of ownership envisages the right of owner to possess, use and dispose of the property himself/herself or jointly with others.

IV. Nobody shall be deprived of his/her property without decision of law court. Total confiscation of the property is not permitted. Alienation of the property for state or public needs is permitted only after preliminary fair reimbursement of its cost.

V. The state guarantees succession rights.

Article 30. Right for intellectual property

I. Everyone has the right for intellectual property.

II. Copyright, patent rights and other rights for intellectual property are protected by law.

Article 31. Right to live in safety

I. Everyone has the right to live in safety.

II. Except cases envisaged by law it is prohibited to infringe on anybody’s life, physical and spiritual health, property, living premises, to commit acts of violence.

Article 32. Right for personal immunity

I. Everyone has the right for personal immunity.

II. Everyone has the right for confidentiality concerning personal and family life. Except cases envisaged by legislation interference in personal life is prohibited.

III. Gaining, storing, use and spreading information about the person private life without his/her consent is not permitted.

IV. The state guarantees everyone the right for confidentiality with respect to correspondence, telephone communications, post, telegraph messages and information sent by other communication means. This right might be restricted, as specified by legislation, to prevent crime or to find out true facts when investigating criminal case.

Article 33. Right for sanctity of home

I. Everyone has the right for sanctity of his/her home.

II. Except cases specified by law or decision of law court nobody has the right to enter private home against the will of its inhabitants.

Article 34. Right for marriage

I. Everyone has the right to marry on reaching the age specified by legislation.

II. Marriages shall be concluded voluntarily. Nobody should be forced into marriage.

III. Family and marriage are protected by state. Maternity, paternity and childhood are protected by the law. The state provides support to large families.

IV. Rights of wife and husband are equal. Care and education of children constitute both right and responsibility of parents.

V. Responsibility of children is to respect parents, look after them. Children who are of age (18) and capable of working must support disabled parents.

Article 35. Right to work

I. Labor is the basis of personal and public prosperity.

II. Everyone has the right to choose independently, based on his/her abilities, kind of activity, profession, occupation and place of work.

III. Nobody might be forced to work.

IV. Labor agreements are concluded voluntarily. Nobody may be forced to conclude labor agreement.

V. Based on decisions of the law court there might be cases of forced labor, terms and conditions being specified by legislation; forced labor is permissible due to orders of authorized persons during the term of army service, state of emergency or martial law.

VI. Everyone has the right to work in safe and healthy conditions, to get remuneration for his/her work without any discrimination, not less than minimum wages rate established by the state.

VII. Unemployed persons have the right to receive social allowances from the state.

VIII. The state will do its best to liquidate unemployment.

Article 36. Right for strikes

I. Everyone has the right to be on strike, both individually and together with others.

II. Right for strike for those working based on labor agreements might be restricted only in cases envisaged by the law. Soldiers and civilians employed in the Army and other military formations of the Azerbaijan Republic have no right to go on strike.

III. Individual and collective labor disputes are settled in line with legislation.

Article 37. Right for rest

I. Everyone has the right for rest.

II. For those working based on labor agreements 8-hour working day, national holidays and at least one paid vacation with duration of at least 21 calendar days are guaranteed.

Article 38. Right for social protection

I. Everyone has the right for social protection.

II. Most vulnerable persons must get support, in the first place, from members of their families.

III. Everyone has the right for social protection on reaching specific age according to legislation, in case of illness, disability, loss of bread-winner in the family, due to unemployment and in other cases envisaged by legislation.

IV. Minimum sum of pensions and social allowances is specified by law.

V. The state creates possibilities for development of charitable activity, voluntary social insurance and other forms of social protection.

Article 39. Right to live in healthy environment

I. Everyone has the right to live in healthy environment.

II. Everyone has the right to gain information about true ecological situation and to get compensation for damage done to his/her health and property because of violation of ecological requirements.

Article 40. Right for culture

I. Everyone has the right to take part in cultural life, to use organizations and values of culture.

II. Everyone must respect historical, cultural and spiritual inheritance, take care of it, protect historical and cultural memorials.

Article 41. Right for protection of health

I. Everyone has the right for protection of his/her health and for medical care.

II. The state takes all necessary measures for development of all forms of health services based on various forms of property, guarantees sanitary-epidemiological safety, creates possibilities for various forms of medical insurance.

III. Officials concealing facts and cases dangerous for life and health of people will bear legal responsibility.

Article 42. Right for education

I. Every citizen has the right for education.

II. The state guarantees free obligatory secondary education.

III. The system of education is under the state control.

IV. The state guarantees continuation of education for most gifted persons irrespective of their financial position.

V. The state establishes minimum educational standards.

Article 43. Right for home

I. Nobody might be deprived of his/her home.

II. The state assists in construction of living premises, takes special measures for realization of right for home.

Article 44. Right for nationality

I. Everyone has the right to keep his/her nationality.

II. Nobody may be forced to change his/her nationality.

Article 45. Right to use mother tongue

I. Everyone has the right to use his/her mother tongue. Everyone has the right to be educated, carry out creative activity in any language, as desired.

II. Nobody may be deprived of right to use his/her mother tongue.

Article 46. Right to defend the honor and dignity

I. Everyone has the right to defend his/her honor and dignity.

II. Dignity of a person is protected by state. Nothing must lead to humiliation of dignity of human being.

III. Nobody must be subject to tortures and torment, treatment or punishment humiliating the dignity of human beings. Medical, scientific and other experiments must not be carried out on any person without his/her consent.

Article 47. Freedom of thought and speech

I. Everyone may enjoy freedom of thought and speech.

II. Nobody should be forced to promulgate his/her thoughts and convictions or to renounce his/her thoughts and convictions.

III. Propaganda provoking racial, national, religious and social discord and animosity is prohibited.

Article 48. Freedom of conscience

I. Everyone enjoys the freedom of conscience.

II. Everyone has the right to define his/her attitude to religion, to profess, individually or together with others, any religion or to profess no religion, to express and spread one’s beliefs concerning religion.

III. Everyone is free to carry out religious rituals, however this should not violate public order and contradict public morals.

IV. Religious beliefs and convictions do not excuse infringements of the law.

Article 49. Freedom of meetings

I. Everyone has the right for meetings.

II. Everyone has the right, having notified respective governmental bodies in advance, peacefully and without arms, meet with other people, organize meetings, demonstrations, processions, place pickets.

Article 50. Freedom of information

I. Everyone is free to look for, acquire, transfer, prepare and distribute information.

II. Freedom of mass media is guaranteed. State censorship in mass media, including press is prohibited.

Article 51. Freedom of creative activity

I. Everyone is free to carry out creative activity.

II. The state guarantees freedom in literary-artistic, scientific-technical and other kinds of creative activity.

Article 52. Right for citizenship

A person having political and legal relations with the Azerbaijan Republic and also mutual rights and obligations is the citizen of the Azerbaijan Republic. A person born on the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic or by citizens of the Azerbaijan Republic is the citizen of the Azerbaijan Republic. A person is the citizen of the Azerbaijan Republic if one of his/her parents is the citizen of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 53. Guarantee of right for citizenship

I. In no circumstances a citizen of the Azerbaijan Republic may be deprived of citizenship of the Azerbaijan Republic.

II. In no circumstances a citizen of the Azerbaijan Republic may be expelled from the Azerbaijan Republic or extradited to foreign state.

III. The Azerbaijan Republic ensures legal protection and patronizes citizens of the Azerbaijan Republic temporarily or permanently living outside the Republic.

Article 54. Right to take part in political life of society and state

I. Citizens of the Azerbaijan Republic have the right to take part in political life of society and state without restrictions.

II. Any citizen of the Azerbaijan Republic has the right himself to stand up to the attempt of rebellion against the state or state coup.

Article 55. Right to take part in governing the state

I. Citizens of the Azerbaijan Republic have the right to take part in governing the state. They may exercise said right themselves or through their representatives.

II. Citizens of the Azerbaijan Republic have the right to work in governmental bodies. Officials of state bodies are appointed from citizens of the Azerbaijan Republic. Foreign citizens and stateless citizens may be employed into state organizations in an established order.

Article 56. Electoral right

I. Citizens of the Azerbaijan Republic have the right to elect and be elected to state bodies and also to take part in referendum.

II. Those recognized incapable by law court have no right to take part in elections and in referendum.

III. Participation in elections of military personnel, judges, state employees, religious officials, persons imprisoned by decision of law court, other persons specified in the present Constitution and laws might be restricted by law.

Article 57. Right to appeal

I. Citizens of the Azerbaijan Republic have the right to appeal personally and also to submit individual and collective written applications to state bodies. Each application should be responded to in an established order and term.

II. Citizens of the Azerbaijan Republic have the right to criticize activity or work of state bodies, their officials, political parties, trade unions, other public organizations and also activity or work of individuals. Prosecution for criticism is prohibited. Insult or libel shall not be regarded as criticism.

Article 58. Right for joining

I. Everyone is free to join other people.

II. Everyone has the right to establish any union, including political party, trade union and other public organization or enter existing organizations. Unrestricted activity of all unions is ensured.

III. Nobody may be forced to joint any union or remain its member.

IV. Activity of unions intended for forcible overthrow of legal state power on the whole territory of the Azerbaijan Republic or on a part thereof is prohibited. Activity of unions which violates the Constitution and laws might be stopped by decision of law court.

Article 59. Right for business activity

Everyone may, using his/her possibilities, abilities and property, according to existing legislation, individually or together with other citizens, carry out business activity or other kinds of economic activity not prohibited by the law.

Article 60. Guarantee of rights and liberties by law court

I. Legal protection of rights and liberties of every citizen is ensured.

II. Everyone may appeal to law court regarding decisions and activity (or inactivity) of state bodies, political parties, trade unions, other public organizations and officials.

Article 61. Right for legal advice

I. Everyone has the right for obtaining qualified legal advice.

II. IIn specific cases envisaged by legislation legal advice shall be rendered free, at the governmental expense.

III. Every citizen has the right for the lawyer’s advice from the moment of detention, arrest or accusation with crime by competent state bodies.

Article 62. Inadmissibility of change of legal jurisdiction

Everyone has the right for consideration of his/her case in the law court specified by the legislation. Case of the person shall not be considered in other law court without the person’s consent.

Article 63. Presumption of innocence

I. Everyone is entitled for presumption of innocence. Everyone who is accused of crime shall be considered innocent until his guilt is proved legally and if no verdict of law court has been brought into force.

II. A person under suspicion of crime must not be considered guilty.

III. A person accused of crime does not need to prove his/her innocence.

IV. Proofs received against the law must not be used when administering justice.

V. Nobody may be accused of crime without the verdict of law court.

Article 64. Inadmissibility of repeated conviction for one and the same crime

Nobody may be repeatedly sentenced for one and the same crime.

Article 65. Right for repeated appeal to the law court

Every person convicted by the law court has the right to appeal, as specified by the law, to the higher law court asking for reconsideration of the verdict and also for pardon and mitigation of the sentence.

Article 66. Inadmissibility of testifying against relations

Nobody may be forced to testify against him/herself, wife (husband), children, parents, brother, sister. Complete list of relations against whom testifying is not obligatory is specified by law.

Article 67. Rights of detained, arrested, accused in crime

Every person, detained, arrested, accused in crime should be immediately advised by competent state bodies about his/her rights, reasons of his arrest and institution of criminal proceeding against him/her.

Article 68. Right for compensation of losses

I. Rights of the person suffered from crime and also from usurpation of power are protected by law. Suffered person has the right to take part in administration of justice and demand for compensation of losses.

II. Everyone has the right for compensation by the state of losses borne as a result of illegal actions or non-action of state bodies or their officials.

Article 69. Right of foreign citizens and stateless persons

I. Foreign citizens and stateless persons staying in the Azerbaijan Republic may enjoy all rights and must fulfil all obligations like citizens of the Azerbaijan Republic if not specified by legislation or international agreement in which the Azerbaijan Republic is one of the parties.

II. Rights and liberties of foreign citizens and stateless persons permanently living or temporarily staying on the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic may be restricted only according to international legal standards and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 70. Right for political refuge

I. In accordance with recognized international legal standards the Azerbaijan Republic grants political refuge to foreign citizens and stateless persons.

II. Extradition of persons persecuted for their political beliefs and also for acts which are not regarded as crime in the Azerbaijan Republic is not permitted.

Article 71. Protection of rights and liberties of a human being and citizen

I. To observe and to protect rights and liberties of a human being and citizen specified in the Constitution-is responsibility of bodies of legislative, executive and legal power.

II. No one may restrict implementation of rights and liberties of a human being and citizen.

III. Rights and liberties of a human being and citizen may be partially and temporarily restricted on announcement of war, martial law and state of emergency, and also mobilization, taking into consideration international obligations of the Azerbaijan Republic. Population of the Republic shall be notified in advance about restrictions as regards their rights and liberties.

IV. Nobody, in no circumstances may be forced to promulgate his/her religious and other beliefs, thoughts and to be persecuted for such.

V. None of the provisions of Constitution may be interpreted as regulation directed to prohibition of rights and liberties of a human being and citizen.

VI. Rights and liberties of a human being and citizen act on the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic by themselves.

VII. Any arguments related to violation of rights and liberties of a human being and citizen are settled in law courts.

VIII. No one will be responsible for acts which were not considered criminal at the moment of their implementation. If after the crime new law was introduced envisaging no responsibility or mitigation of responsibility, said new law shall apply.

Chapter IV. MAIN RESPONSIBILITIES OF CITIZENS

Article 72. Main responsibilities of citizens

I. Everyone has obligations to the state and society directly resulting from his/her rights and liberties.

II. Everyone must follow provisions of the Constitution and Laws of the Azerbaijan Republic, respect rights and liberties of other persons, fulfil other obligations envisaged by the law.

III. Not knowing the law does not release from responsibility.

Article 73. Taxes and other state duties

I. Everyone must pay taxes and other state duties in-time and in full volume as required.

II. Nobody may be forced to pay taxes and other state duties if they are not envisaged in the law and in excess of amount specified therein.

Article 74. Loyalty to motherland

I. Loyalty to motherland is sacred

II. Persons working in legislative, executive or judicial power bodies who were elected and appointed to their posts are responsible for accurate and conscientious fulfilment of their obligations and, whenever required by the law, make an oath.

III. Person working in legislative, executive or judicial power bodies who was elected and appointed to his/her post and made an oath regarding the Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic shall be considered dismissed and will not be able to take this position if he/she was accused in crime against the state, including rebellion or state coup and has been sentenced based on this accusation.

Article 75. Respect for state symbols

Every citizen must respect state symbols of the Azerbaijan Republic – its banner, state emblem and hymn.

Article 76. Defence of motherland

I. Defence of motherland is duty of any citizen. Citizens of the Republic serve in the army according to legislation.

II. If beliefs of citizens come into conflict with service in the army then in some cases envisaged by legislation alternative service instead of regular army service is permitted.

Article 77. Protection of historical and cultural memorials

Every citizen is responsible for protection of historical and cultural memorials.

Article 78. Protection of environment

Every citizen is responsible for protection of environment.

Article 79. Inadmissibility of fulfilment of obligations contradicting the legislation

No one may be forced to carry out obligations contradicting the Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 80. Responsibility

Violation of provisions of the present Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic including usurpation of rights and liberties and also failure to fulfil responsibilities specified in the present Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic are persecuted.

Chapter V. LEGISLATIVE POWER

Article 81. Implementation of legislative power

Legislative power in the Azerbaijan Republic is implemented by Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 82. Number of deputies in Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic consists of 125 deputies.

Article 83. Procedure of elections of deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

Deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic are elected based on majority voting systems and general, equal and direct elections by way of free, individual and secret voting.

Article 84. Term of authority of a calling of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Term of authority of each calling of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic is 5 years.

II. Elections for each calling of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic take place every 5 years on a first Sunday of November.

III. Term of authority of deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic is restricted by term of authority of respective calling of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

IV. If new elections of deputies to replace retired deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic are carried out, then term of authority of newly elected deputy corresponds to remaining term of authority of respective retired deputy.

Article 85. Requirements to candidates to the posts of deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Every citizen of the Azerbaijan Republic not younger than 25 may be elected the deputy of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic in an established order.

II. Persons having double citizenship, those having obligations to other states, those working in the bodies of executive or judicial power, persons involved in other payable activity except scientific, pedagogical and creative activity, religious men, persons whose incapacity has been confirmed by law court, those condemned for grave crime, serving a sentence due to verdict of law court may not be elected the deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 86. Inspection and approval of results of elections of deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

Accuracy of results of elections is checked and approved by Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic as specified in the law.

Article 87. End of the term of authority of deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Term of authority of deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic ends on a day of first meeting of new calling of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

II. Elections of deputies to replace those who left Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic shall not be held if less than 25 days remains to the end of term of authority of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

III. Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic will have powers after authority of 83 of its deputies has been approved.

Article 88. Sessions of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Every year two spring and autumn sessions of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic are held.

After approval of authority of 83 deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic the first meeting of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic shall be summoned within 1 week beginning from the day of approval.

If after elections to Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic, authority of 83 its deputies has not been approved before before 10 October or 10 March then day of opening of the first meeting of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic will be established by Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic.

II. Extraordinary sessions of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic will be summoned by the Chairman of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic at request of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic or 42 deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

III. Agenda of extraordinary session will be prepared by those who summoned said session. After the questions of agenda have been discussed extraordinary session ends.

Article 89. Deprivation of deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic of their mandates and loss of powers by the deputy of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. The deputy of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic looses his/her mandate in the following cases:

1. whenever during the elections there was falsification in calculation of votes;

2. on giving up the citizenship of the Azerbaijan Republic or accepting other citizenship;

3. on commitment of crime and whenever there is valid verdict of law court;

4. on taking position in state bodies, post in religious organizations, involvement in business, commercial or other paid activity (except scientific, pedagogical and creative activity);

5. on a voluntary basis;

Decision about deprivation of the deputy of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic of his mandate is taken as specified in legislation.

II. Whenever deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic are not able to fulfil their obligations and in other cases specified by law their authority is considered terminated. Procedure of taking respective decision is determined by the law.

Article 90. Immunity of deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. A deputy of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic enjoys immunity during the whole term of his powers. Except cases when the deputy may be caught in the act of crime, the deputy of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic may not be called to criminal responsibility during the whole term of his/her authority, arrested, disciplinary measures may not be applied to him by law court, he may not be searched. The deputy of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic may be arrested only if he/she has been caught at a place of crime. In such case the body which detained the deputy of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic must immediately notify General Procurator of the Azerbaijan Republic about the fact.

II. Immunity of deputy of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic might be stopped only by decision of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic based on application of General Procurator of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 91. Prohibition on institution of proceedings against deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

Deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic cannot be made responsible for their activity in Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic, voting in Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic and statements made in Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic. Without the deputies’ consent, in connection with such cases, they are not obliged to give explanations and evidence.

Article 92. Organization of work of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic determines procedure of its activity, elects its chairman and his deputies, organizes permanent and other commissions, establishes Counting Chamber.

Article 93. Acts of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic accepts Constitutional laws and decrees regarding the questions of its competence.

II. Constitutional laws, laws and decrees are taken in Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic in an order specified in the present Constitution.

III. Deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic exercise their voting right personally.

IV. Specific orders to the bodies of executive power and law courts cannot be envisaged in laws and decrees of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 94. General rules established by Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic establishes general rules concerning the following matters:

1. use of rights and liberties of a person and citizen specified in the present Constitution, state guarantees of these rights and liberties;

2. elections of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic;

3. elections to Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic and status of deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic;

4. referendum;

5. judicial system and status of judges; procurator’s office, the bar and notary’s offices;

6. legal proceedings, execution of court verdicts;

7. elections to municipalities and status of municipalities;

8. state of emergency; martial law;

9. state awards;

10. status of physical persons and legal entities;

11. objects of civil law;

12. transactions, civil-legal agreements, representation and inheritance;

13. right of property, including legal regime of state, private and municipal property, right of intellectual property, other proprietary rights; liability right;

14. family relationships, including guardianship and trusteeship;

15. basis of financial activity-taxes, duties and charges;

16. labor relationships and social maintenance;

17. interpretation of crime and other violations of law; establishment of responsibility for these acts;

18. defence and military service;

19. governmental employment;

20. basis of security;

21. territorial arrangement; regime of state borders;

22. ratification and denunciation of international treaties;

23. communications and transport;

24. statistics; metrology and standards;

25. customs;

26. commerce and stock exchange activity;

27. banking business, accounting, insurance.

II. As per questions specified in paragraphs 2, 3, 4 of the present Article the laws are approved by majority of 83 votes, as per other questions-by majority of 63 votes.

III. The first part of the present Article might be supplemented with the Constitutional law.

Article 95. Competence of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. The following questions fall under the competence of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic:

1. organization of work of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic;

2. based on recommendation by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic establishment of diplomatic representations of the Azerbaijan Republic;

3. administrative-territorial division;

4. ratification and denunciation of international agreements;

5. based on recommendation by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic approval of state budget of the Azerbaijan Republic and control over its execution;

6. election of Ombudsman of Azerbaijan Republic upon recommendation of the President of Azerbaijan Republic;

7. based on recommendation by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic approval of military doctrine of the Azerbaijan Republic;

8. in cases specified in the present Constitution approval of decrees of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic;

9. based on recommendation by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic giving consent for appointment of Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic;

10. based on recommendation by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic appointment of judges of Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic, Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic and the Courts of Appeal of the Azerbaijan Republic;

11. based on recommendation by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic giving consent for appointment and dismissal of General Procurator of the Azerbaijan Republic;

12. dismissal of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic by way of impeachment based on recommendation of Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic;

13. based on recommendation by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic dismissal of judges;

14. taking decision regarding a vote of confidence in the Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic;

15. based on recommendation by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic appointment and dismissal of members of Administration Board of National Bank of the Azerbaijan Republic;

16. based on recommendation by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic giving consent for enlistment of Military Forces of the Azerbaijan Republic to operations other than their normal duties;

17. based on request of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic giving consent for announcement of war and conclusion of peace treaty;

18. announcement of referendum;

19. amnesty.

II. As per questions specified in paragraphs 1-5 of the present Article the laws are approved by majority of 63 votes, as per other questions decrees are approved in the same order if not specified otherwise by the present Constitution.

III. Resolutions shall be also adopted with respect to other issues which, according to the present Constitution, fall within the competence of Milli Majlis of Azerbaijan Republic, the issues connected with the organization of the activity of Milli Majlis of Azerbaijan Republic as well as the issues where the opinions of Milli Majlis of Azerbaijan Republic are required.

IV. The first part of the present Article may be supplemented with the Constitutional law.

Article 96. Right of legislative initiative

I. Right of legislative initiative in Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic (right to submit for consideration by Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic drafts of laws and other questions) belongs to deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic, the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic, the Prosecutor’s Office of Azerbaijan Republic and Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic.

II. Drafts of laws or decrees submitted for consideration by Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic, the Prosecutor’s Office of Azerbaijan Republic or Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, as legislative initiative, are put to the vote as they are.

III. Amendments in such drafts of laws or decrees are introduced by consent of the body which used the right of legislative initiative.

IV. Drafts of laws or decrees submitted for consideration by Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic, the Prosecutor’s Office of Azerbaijan Republic or Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, as legislative initiative, are put to the vote in Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic within two months.

V. If draft of the law or decree has been declared by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic, the Prosecutor’s Office of Azerbaijan Republic or Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic urgent, then above specified term shall constitute 20 days.

Article 97. Term for submitting laws for signing

I. Drafts of the laws are submitted to the President of the Azerbaijan Republic for signing within 14 days from the day of their acceptance.

II. Urgent draft of the law is submitted to the President of the Azerbaijan Republic for signing within 24 hours from the moment of its acceptance.

Article 98. Validity of acts of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic

If not specified otherwise in the law and decree of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic themselves the law and decree become valid from the date of their publication.

Chapter VI. EXECUTIVE POWER

Article 99. Belonging of executive power

Executive power in the Azerbaijan Republic belongs to the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 100. Requirements to candidates to the post of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic

Citizen of the Azerbaijan Republic not younger than 35, permanently living on the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic longer than 10 years, possessing voting right, without previous conviction, having no liabilities in other states, with university degree, not having double citizenship may be elected the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 101. Procedure of elections of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. The President of the Azerbaijan Republic is elected for a 5-year term by way of general, direct and equal elections, with free, personal and secret ballot.

II. The President of the Azerbaijan Republic is elected by the majority of more than the half of votes.

III. If required majority has not achieved in the first round of voting, then second round will be held on second Sunday after the first round. Only two candidates who gained more votes than others in the first round, or two candidates following closely the first ones, should they recall their candidatures, will take part in the second round of elections.

IV. The candidate having collected majority of votes in the second round of elections is considered elected the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

V. No one may be elected the President of the Azerbaijan Republic repeatedly, more than two times.

VI. Procedure of implementation of the present Article is specified in legislation.

Article 102. Results of elections of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic

Results of elections of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic are officially announced by Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic within 14 days from the day of voting.

Article 103. Oath of a person elected the President of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. A person elected the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, within 3 days from the day when results of elections of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic have been announced, with participation of judges of Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic takes an oath: “Carrying out powers of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic I swear to follow the Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic, protect sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state, to serve people”.

II. It is considered that the President of the Azerbaijan Republic began carrying out his official powers from the day when he took his oath.

Article 104. Inability of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic to carry out his powers

I. The President of the Azerbaijan Republic is considered having left his position ahead of time on resignation, complete inability to fulfil his powers due to illness, dismissal from his post in cases and in an order envisaged in the present Constitution.

II. When the President of the Azerbaijan Republic is going to resign, his application concerning resignation is presented to Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic. Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic, having confirmed that the President of the Azerbaijan Republic himself sent in his resignation makes decision to accept such resignation. From that moment the President is considered having left his post due to resignation.

III. Having received notifications about complete inability of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic to fulfil his powers due to poor health, Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic applies to the Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic for clarification of this fact. Should the Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic confirm this fact the question is settled.

Article 105. Implementation of powers of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic on his resignation

I. Whenever the President of the Azerbaijan Republic resigns from his post ahead of time, extraordinary elections of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic are held within three months. In such case, until new President of the Azerbaijan Republic is elected, the Prime-Minister of Azerbaijan Republic will carry out powers of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

II. If during said term the Prime-Minister of Azerbaijan Republic carrying out powers of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic resigns, becomes incapable of carrying out his powers due to illness, Chairman of Milli Majlis of Azerbaijan Republic will carry out powers of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

III. If Chairman of Milli Majlis of Azerbaijan Republic is unable to fulfil powers of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic due to reasons given in paragraph II of the Present Article, Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic takes decree about delegation of powers of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic to other official.

Article 106. Immunity of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic

The President of the Azerbaijan Republic enjoys the right of personal immunity. Honor and dignity of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic are protected by law.

Article 107. Dismissal of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic from his post

I. In case of grave crime done by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic the question of dismissal of the President may be submitted to Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic on initiative of Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic based on conclusions of Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic presented within 30 days.

II. The President of the Azerbaijan Republic may be dismissed from his post by decree of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic taken by majority of 95 votes of deputies. This decree is signed by the Chairman of Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic. If Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic fails to sign said decree within one week it shall not come into force.

III. Decree about dismissal of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic from his post must be accepted within 2 months from the date of application of Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic to Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic. If said decree is not taken within said term, then accusation against the President of the Azerbaijan Republic is considered rejected.

Article 108. Provisions for the President of the Azerbaijan Republic

The President of the Azerbaijan Republic and his family are provided for by the state. Security of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic and his family is ensured by special security teams

Article 109. Competence of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic

The President of the Azerbaijan Republic:

1. announces elections to Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic;

2. submits for approval by Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic state budget of the Azerbaijan Republic;

3. approves state economic and social programs;

4. by consent of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic appoints Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic, dismisses Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic;

5. appoints and dismisses members of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic; whenever necessary takes chair at the meetings of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic;

6. takes decision about resignation of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic;

7. establishes central and local executive power bodies within the limits of sums allotted in state budget of the Azerbaijan Republic;

8. cancels decrees and orders of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic and Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, acts of central and local executive power bodies;

9. submits proposals to Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic about appointment of judges of Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic, Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic and the Courts of Appeal of the Azerbaijan Republic; appoints judges of other courts of the Azerbaijan Republic; by consent of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic appoints and dismisses General procurator of the Azerbaijan Republic;

10. submits recommendations to Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic about appointment and dismissal of members of Administration Board of National Bank of the Azerbaijan Republic;

11. submits to Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic for approval military doctrine of the Azerbaijan Republic;

12. appoints and dismisses officers of higher rank to Military Forces of the Azerbaijan Republic;

13. forms the executive office of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, appoints its head;

14. Shall recommend to the Milli Majlis of Azerbaijan Republic as regards the election of the Ombudsman of Azerbaijan Republic;

15. submits recommendations to Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic about establishment of diplomatic representations of the Azerbaijan Republic in foreign countries and under international organizations, appoints and dismisses diplomatic representatives of the Azerbaijan Republic in foreign countries and in international organizations;

16. receives credential papers and letters of recall from diplomatic representatives of foreign countries;

17. concludes interstate and intergovernmental agreements, presents interstate agreements to Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic for ratification and denunciation; signs decrees on ratification of international agreements;

18. announces referendum;

19. signs and issues laws;

20. settles questions concerning citizenship;

21. settles questions concerning granting political refuge;

22. grants pardon;

23. gives state awards;

24. assigns higher military and higher special ranks;

25. announces total or partial mobilization and also demobilization;

26. takes decision about calling up citizens of the Azerbaijan Republic to urgent military service and transfer to the reserve of soldiers of urgent military service;

27. forms Security Council of the Azerbaijan Republic;

28. submits recommendation to Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic about consent for use of Military Forces of the Azerbaijan Republic in implementation of duties other than their normal duties;

29. announces state of emergency and martial law;

30. on consent of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic announces a war and concludes peace agreements;

31. forms special security bodies within the limits of sums allotted from state budget of the Azerbaijan Republic;

32. settles other questions which under the present Constitution do not pertain to the competence of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic and law courts of the Azerbaijan Republic;

Article 110. Signing of the laws

I. The President of the Azerbaijan Republic signs the laws within 56 days after their presentation. If the President of the Azerbaijan Republic has objections against a law he may return it to Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic within specified term without signing, together with his comments.

II. Should the President of the Azerbaijan Republic fail to sign Constitutional laws they will not come into force. If Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic accepts by majority of 95 votes laws that have been accepted previously by majority of 83 votes, and by majority of 83 votes the laws that have been accepted previously by majority of 63 votes, said laws come into force after repeated voting.

Article 111. Declaration of martial law

In cases of actual occupation of some part of the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic, announcement of war by foreign country or countries against the Azerbaijan Republic, blockade of the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic and also whenever there is real danger of armed attack against the Azerbaijan Republic, blockade of the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic and also in case of real threat of such blockade the President of the Azerbaijan Republic announces martial law all over the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic or in individual areas, and within 24 hours submits respective decree for approval by Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 112. State of emergency

Whenever natural calamities take place, epidemic, epizootic, grave ecological and other disasters and also on accomplishment of acts aimed to violation of territorial integrity of the Azerbaijan Republic, revolt or state coup, with mass disorders accompanied by violence, other conflicts threatening life and safety of citizens, or normal activity of state bodies, the President of the Azerbaijan Republic announces state of emergency in individual areas of the Azerbaijan Republic and within 24 hours submits respective decree for approval by Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 113. Acts of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Establishing general procedures the President of the Azerbaijan Republic issues decrees, as per all other questions – he issues orders.

II. If not specified otherwise in decrees and orders of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic they become valid from the day of their publication.

Article 114. Status of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. For implementation of executive powers the President of the Azerbaijan Republic establishes Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic.

II. Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic is the highest body of executive power of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

III. Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic is subordinate to the President of the Azerbaijan Republic and reports to him.

IV. Procedure of activity of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic is defined by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 115. Composition of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic

Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic includes Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic, his deputies, ministers and heads of other central bodies of executive power.

Article 116. Resignation of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic

On a day when newly elected President of the Azerbaijan Republic comes into his rights and begins carrying out his powers Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic resigns.

Article 117. Meetings of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic

As a rule, Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic takes chair at the meetings of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 118. Procedure of appointment of Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Prime-minister of Azerbaijan Republic is appointed by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic on consent of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

II. Proposed candidature for the post of Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic is submitted for consideration to Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic not later than one month from the day when the President begins carrying out his powers, or not later than two weeks from the day of resignation of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic.

III. Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic takes decision concerning the candidate to the post of Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic not later than within one week from the day when such candidature has been proposed. Should said procedure be violated, or candidatures proposed by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic for the post of Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic be rejected three times, then the President of the Azerbaijan Republic may appoint Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic without consent of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 119. Authority of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic

Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic:

· prepares draft of state budget of the Azerbaijan Republic and submits it to the President of the Azerbaijan Republic;

· provides implementation of state budget of the Azerbaijan Republic;

· provides implementation of financial-credit and monetary policy;

· provides implementation of state economic programs;

· provides implementation of state social programs;

· carries out control over ministries and other central bodies of executive power, annuls their acts;

· solves other questions delegated to it by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 120. Acts of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Establishing general procedures Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic issues decrees, as per all other questions – it issues orders.

II. If not specified otherwise in decrees and orders of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic, they become valid from the day of their publication.

Article 121. Requirements to candidates to the posts of members of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic shall be a citizen of the Azerbaijan Republic not younger than 30, having voting right, with university degree, having no liabilities in other states.

II. Deputy Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic, minister, head of other central body of executive power shall be a citizen of the Azerbaijan Republic not younger than 25, having voting right, with university degree, having no liabilities in other states.

Article 122. Requirements to members of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic

Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic, his deputies, ministers, heads of other central bodies of executive power may not occupy any posts, irrespective of the procedure – elections or appointment, may not be involved in business, commercial and other payable activity except scientific, pedagogical and creative activity, may not get remuneration other than their wages and money for scientific, pedagogical and creative activity.

Article 123. Immunity of Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic enjoys immunity during the whole term of his powers.

II. Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic may not be arrested, called to criminal responsibility except cases when he has been caught in the act of crime, disciplinary measures may not be applied to him by law court, he may not be searched.

III. Prime-minister of the Azerbaijan Republic may be arrested if he has been caught in the act of crime. In such case body detained the deputy of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic must immediately notify General Procurator of the Azerbaijan Republic about the fact.

IV. Immunity of Prime- minister of the Azerbaijan Republic might be stopped only by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, based on application of General Procurator of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 124. Local bodies of executive power

I. Heads of executive power bodies carry out executive power locally.

II. Heads of executive power bodies are appointed to their posts and dismissed by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

III. Limits of authority of local executive power bodies are determined by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Chapter VII. JUDICIAL POWER

Article 125. Judicial power

I. Judicial power in Azerbaijan is implemented by law courts.

II. Judicial power is implemented through the Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic, Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic, Courts of Appeal of the Azerbaijan Republic, ordinary and specialized law courts of the Azerbaijan Republic.

III. Judicial power is implemented by way of constitutional, civil and criminal legal proceedings and other forms of legislation provided for by law.

IV. In the criminal legal proceedings, Procurator’s Office of the Azerbaijan Republic and lawyers take part.

V. Judicial system and legal proceedings in the Azerbaijan Republic are determined by law.

VI. Use of legal means aimed to change of authority of law courts and establishment of extraordinary law courts which are not envisaged by the law are prohibited.

Article 126. Requirements to candidates to judges posts

I. Judges shall be citizens of the Azerbaijan Republic not younger than 30, having voting right, higher juridical education and at least 5-year working experience in the sphere of law.

II. Judges may not occupy any other posts, irrespective of the procedure – elections or appointment, may not be involved in business, commercial and other payable activity, except scientific, pedagogical and creative activity, may not be involved in political activity and join political parties, may not get remuneration other than their wages and money for scientific, pedagogical and creative activity.

Article 127. Independence of judges, main principles and conditions of implementation of justice

I. Judges are independent, they are subordinate only to Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic, they cannot be replaced during the term of their authority.

II. In consideration of legal cases judges must be impartial, fair, they should provide juridical equality of parties, act based on facts and according to the law.

III. Direct and indirect restriction of legal proceedings from somebody’s part and due to some reason, illegal influence, threats and interference are not allowed.

IV. Justice shall be implemented based on equality of citizens before the law and law court.

V. In all law courts hearing of legal cases shall be open.

It is allowed to have closed hearing of legal cases only if the law court decides that open hearings may result in disclosure of state, professional or commercial secrets, or that it is necessary to keep confidentiality with respect to personal or family life.

VI. Except cases envisaged by law it is prohibited to carry out legal proceedings by correspondence.

VII. Law proceedings are carried out based on the principle of contest.

VIII. Everyone has the right for defence at all stages of legal proceedings.

IX. Justice is based on presumption of innocence.

X. In the Azerbaijan Republic legal proceedings are carried out in state language of the Azerbaijan Republic or in a language of majority of population in specific area. Persons-participants of legal proceedings not knowing the language of proceedings have the right to be acquainted with materials of proceedings, to take part in legal proceedings using interpreter, to make statements in the law court in their native language.

Article 128. Immunity of judges

I. Judges are immune.

II. A judge may be called to criminal responsibility only in accordance with law.

III. Authority of judges might be stopped only based on reasons and rules envisaged by the law.

IV. Whenever judges commit crime, the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, based on conclusions of Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic, may make statement in Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic with the initiative to dismiss judges from their posts. Respective conclusions of Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic must be presented to the President of the Azerbaijan Republic within 30 days after his request.

V. Decision about dismissal of judges of Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic, Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic and Economic Court of the Azerbaijan Republic is taken by Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic with majority of 83 votes; decision about dismissal of other judges is taken by Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic with majority of 63 votes.

Article 129. Decisions of law courts and their implementation

Law courts take decisions on behalf of the state; implementation of these decisions is obligatory.

Article 130. Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic consists of 9 judges.

II. Judges of Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic are appointed by Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic on recommendation by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

III. Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic based on inquiry of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic, Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic, Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic, Procurator’s Office of the Azerbaijan Republic, Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic takes decisions regarding the following:

1. correspondence of laws of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees and orders of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees and orders of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic, normative-legal acts of central bodies of executive power to Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic;

2. correspondence of decrees of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic, normative-legal acts of central bodies of executive power to the laws of the Azerbaijan Republic;

3. correspondence of decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic and normative-legal acts of central bodies of executive power to decrees of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic;

4. in cases envisaged by law, correspondence of decisions of Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic to Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic;

5. correspondence of acts of municipalities to Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic, laws of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic (in Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic – also to Constitution and laws of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic and decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic);

6. correspondence of interstate agreements of the Azerbaijan Republic, which have not yet become valid, to Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic; correspondence of intergovernmental agreements of the Azerbaijan Republic to Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic;

7. correspondence of Constitution and laws of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, decrees of Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic to Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic; correspondence of laws of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic to laws of the Azerbaijan Republic; correspondence of decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic to decrees of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic and decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic;

8. settlement of disputes connected with division of authority between legislative, executive and judicial powers.

IV. Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic gives interpretation of the Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic based on inquiries of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic, Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic, Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic, Procurator’s Office of the Azerbaijan Republic and Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic.

V. Everyone claiming to be the victim of a violation of his/her rights and freedoms by the decisions of legislative, executive and judiciary, municipal acts set forth in the items 1-7 of the Para III of this Article may appeal, in accordance with the procedure provided for by law, to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Azerbaijan with the view of the restoration of violated human rights and freedoms.

VI. In accordance with the procedure provided for by the laws of Azerbaijan Republic the courts may file the Constitutional Court of Azerbaijan Republic a request on interpretation of the Constitution and the laws of Azerbaijan Republic as regards the matters concerning the implementation of human rights and freedoms.

VII. Ombudsman of Azerbaijan Republic in accordance with the procedure provided for by the laws of the Republic of Azerbaijan for solving the matters indicated in items 1-7, para III of the given Article shall apply to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Azerbaijan in cases where the rights and freedoms of a person had been violated by legislative acts in force, normative acts of executive power, municipalities as well as the court decisions

VIII. Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic exercises also other authorities envisaged in the present Constitution.

IX. Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic takes decisions as regards the questions of its competence. Decisions of Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic are obligatory all over the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic.

X. Laws and other acts, individual provisions of these documents, intergovernmental agreements of the Azerbaijan Republic cease to be valid in term specified in the decision of Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic, and interstate agreements of the Azerbaijan Republic do not come into force.

Article 131. Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic is the highest judicial body on civil, criminal, administrative and other cases directed to general and specialized law courts; it, via the cassation procedure, shall administer the justice; gives explanations as per practices in activity of law courts in an order envisaged by legislation;.

II. Judges of Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic are appointed by Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic on recommendation of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic

Article 132. Courts of Appeal of Azerbaijan Republic

I. The Courts of Appeal of Azerbaijan Republic shall be the higher courts considering the issues falling within their competences according to the legislation.

II. Judges of the Courts of Appeal of Azerbaijan Republic shall be appointed by the Milli Majlis of Azerbaijan Republic upon the recommendation of the President of Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 133. Procurator’s Office of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Via procedure and in cases specified by legislation, Procurator’s Office of the Azerbaijan Republic exercises control over fulfilment and application of laws; in cases envisaged by legislation it undertakes prosecution and carries out investigation; supports state incrimination in the law court; brings in an action in the law court; remonstrates against decisions of law court.

II. Procurator’s Office of the Azerbaijan Republic is an integral centralized body based on subordination of territorial and specialized procurators to General Procurator of the Azerbaijan Republic.

III. General Procurator of the Azerbaijan Republic is appointed to his post and dismissed from it by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, on consent of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

IV. Deputies of General Procurator of the Azerbaijan Republic, procurators supervising specialized republican procurator’s offices, procurator of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic are appointed to their posts and dismissed from their posts by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic on recommendation of General Procurator of the Azerbaijan Republic.

V. Territorial and specialised procurators are appointed to their posts and dismissed by General Procurator of the Azerbaijan Republic on agreement with the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Chapter VIII. NAKHICHEVAN AUTONOMOUS REPUBLIC

Article 134. Status of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic

I. Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic is autonomous state within the Azerbaijan Republic.

II. Status of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic is defined in the present Constitution.

III. Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic is an integral part of the Azerbaijan Republic.

IV. Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic, laws of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic and decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic are obligatory on the territory of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic.

V. Constitution and laws of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic accepted by Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic shall not contradict respectively to Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic; decrees accepted by Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic-to Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic and decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic.

VI. The Constitution of Nakhchivan Autonomy Republic shall be submitted to the Milli Majlis of Azerbaijan Republic by the President of Azerbaijan Republic and shall by approved by the Constitutional Law.

Article 135. Division of powers in Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic

I. Legislative power in Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic is implemented by Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, executive power – by the Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, judicial power-by law courts of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic.

II. Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic independently settles questions which according to Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic fall under its competence; Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic independently settles questions which according to Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic fall under its competence; law courts of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic independently settle questions which according to Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic fall under their competence.

Article 136. The highest official of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic

Chairman of Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic is the highest official of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic.

Article 137. Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic

I. Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic consists of 45 members.

II. Term of authority of Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic is 5 years.

III. Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic elects chairman of Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic and his deputies, establishes permanent and other commissions.

Article 138. Competence of Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic

I. Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic establishes general procedures concerning the following:

1. elections to Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic;

2. taxes;

3. routes of economic development of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic;

4. social maintenance;

5. protection of environment;

6. tourism;

7. protection of health, science, culture.

II. Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic accepts laws related to questions specified in the present Article.

Article 139. Questions solved by Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic

I. Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic takes decisions concerning the following questions:

1. organisation of work in Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic;

2. approval of the budget of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic;

3. approval of economic and social programs of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic;

4. appointment and dismissal of Prime-minister of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic;

5. approval of composition of Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic;

6. decisions concerning vote of confidence in Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic.

II. Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic issues decree concerning questions specified in the present Article.

Article 140. Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic

I. Composition of Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic recommended by Prime-minister of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic is approved by Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic.

II. Prime-minister of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic is appointed by Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic on recommendation by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

III. Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic:

· prepares draft of budget of Autonomous Republic and presents it for approval by Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic;

· implements the budget of Autonomous Republic;

· provides implementation of economic programs of Autonomous Republic;

· provides implementation of social programs of Autonomous Republic;

· settles other questions delegated to it by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

IV. Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic issues orders and decrees.

Article 141. Local executive power in Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic

In Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic heads of local executive power bodies are appointed by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic on recommendation of the Chairman of Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic.

Chapter IX. MUNICIPALITIES

Article 142. Organisation of local self-government

I. Local self-government is carried out by municipalities.

II. Municipalities are formed based on elections.

III. The foundations of the status of municipalities shall be determined by given Constitution. The regulations of elections to the municipalities shall be determined by law.

Article 143. Organisation of work of municipalities

I. Activity of municipalities is carried out by way of meetings, permanent and other commissions.

II. Meetings of municipalities are summoned by their chairmen.

Article 144. Authority of municipalities

I. The following questions are settled at the meetings of municipalities:

1. recognition of authority of municipality members, loss of their authority and termination of their authority according to legislation;

2. approval of in-house regulations of municipality;

3. elections of the chairman of municipality, his deputies, permanent and other commissions;

4. establishment of local taxes and duties;

5. approval of local budget and reports on its implementation;

6. possession of municipal property, use and disposal thereof;

7. acceptance and implementation of local programs of social protection and social development;

8. acceptance and implementation of local programs of economic development;

9. acceptance and implementation of local ecological programs.

II. Municipalities may be given additional authorities of legislative and executive power. To implement these authorities respective financing is required. Implementation of such authorities will be controlled respectively by legislative and executive power bodies.

Article 145. Decisions of municipalities

I. Concerning the agenda of the meetings of municipality decisions shall be taken.

II. Decisions at the meetings of municipality are taken by simple majority of voting members of municipality.

III. Decisions related to local taxes and duties are taken by majority of two thirds of votes of municipality members.

Article 146. Guarantee of inviolability of municipalities

Legal protection of municipalities, compensation of additional expenditures resulted from decisions made by state bodies are guaranteed.

Chapter X. LEGISLATIVE SYSTEM

Article 147. Legal force of Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic possesses highest legal power.

II. Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic possesses direct legal power.

III. Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic is the basis of legislative system of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 148. Acts constituting legislative system of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Legislative system consists of the following normative-legal acts:

1. Constitution;

2. acts accepted by referendum;

3. laws;

4. orders;

5. decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic;

6. normative acts of central executive power bodies.

II. International agreements wherein the Azerbaijan Republic is one of the parties constitute an integral part of legislative system of the Azerbaijan Republic.

III. In Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic Constitution and laws of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, decrees of the Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic also possess legal power.

IV. Legislative system of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic should conform to legislative system of the Azerbaijan Republic.

V. Within the limits of their authority local bodies of executive power may accept normative acts not contradicting acts constituting the legislative system.

Article 149. Normative-legal acts

I. Normative-legal acts should be based on law and justice (same attitude to equal interests).

II. Use and implementation of acts taken by referendum is obligatory for citizens, legislative, executive and judicial power bodies, legal entities and municipalities only after their publication.

III. The laws should not contradict the Constitution. Use and implementation of published laws is obligatory for all citizens, legislative, executive and judicial power bodies, legal entities and municipalities.

IV. Decrees of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic should not contradict the Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic. Use and implementation of published decrees is obligatory for all citizens, executive power bodies, legal entities.

V. Decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic should not contradict the Constitution, laws of the Azerbaijan Republic and decrees of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic. Use and implementation of published decrees of the Cabinet of Ministers is obligatory for citizens, central and local executive power bodies, legal entities.

VI. Acts of central bodies of executive power should not contradict the Constitution, laws of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic.

VII. Normative-legal acts improving legal situation of physical persons and legal entities, eliminating or mitigating their legal responsibility have reverse power. Other normative-legal acts have no reverse power.

Article 150. Acts of municipalities

I. Acts taken by municipalities should be based on law and fairness (same attitude and equal interests), should not contradict the Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic (in Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic-also to Constitution and laws of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic).

II. Implementation of act taken by the municipality is obligatory for citizens living on this territory and legal entities located on this territory.

Article 151. Legal value of international acts

Whenever there is disagreement between normative-legal acts in legislative system of the Azerbaijan Republic (except Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic and acts accepted by way of referendum) and international agreements wherein the Azerbaijan Republic is one of the parties, provisions of international agreements shall dominate.

Chapter XI. CHANGES IN CONSTITUTION OF THE AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC

Article 152. Procedure of introduction of changes into Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Changes in the text of the Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic may be made only by way of referendum.

Article 153. Procedure of submit of proposals on changes in the text of Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic

If proposals about changes in the text of Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic are presented by Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic or the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, then Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic should give its conclusion beforehand.

Article 154. Limitations on authority of Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic

Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic shall not take decisions concerning changes in the text of Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic made by way of referendum.

Article 155. Limitations on initiative on introduction of changes into Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic

Proposals about changes or abolition in Articles 1, 2, 6, 7, 8 and 21, about restriction or abolition of human and citizen’s rights and freedoms envisaged in Chapter III of the present Constitution or to higher degree than it is specified in international treaties Azerbaijan Republic is a party too.

Chapter XII. AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC

Article 156. Procedure of introduction of amendments to the Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic

I. Amendments to the Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic are taken in the form of Constitutional laws in Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic, by majority of 95 votes.

II. Constitutional laws on amendments to Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic are put to the vote in Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic twice. The second voting shall be held 6 months after the first one.

III. Constitutional laws on amendments to Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic are submitted to the President of the Azerbaijan Republic for signing in an order envisaged in the present Constitution for laws, both after the first and after the second voting.

IV. Constitutional laws and amendments to the Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic become valid after they have been signed by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic after the second voting.

V. Constitutional laws on amendments are integral part of Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic and should not contradict main text of Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 157. Initiative on introduction of amendments to Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic

Amendments to Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic may be proposed by the President of the Azerbaijan Republic or at least by 63 deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Article 158. Limitation on initiative on introduction of additions to the Constitution of Azerbaijan Republic

There cannot be proposed the introduction of additions to the Constitution of Azerbaijan Republic with respect to provisions envisaged in Chapter I of the present Constitution.

TRANSITIONAL CLAUSES

1. Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic comes into force after it has been accepted by referendum, from the day of its official publication. Constitution (Main Law) of the Azerbaijan Republic accepted on 21 April, 1978 becomes null and void from the day when the present Constitution came into force.

2. The President of the Azerbaijan Republic elected before the present Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic came into force shall carry out powers delegated to the President of the Azerbaijan Republic by the present Constitution.

3. Paragraph 5 of Article 101 of the present Constitution is valid for the President of the Azerbaijan Republic elected after the acceptance of the present Constitution.

4. Powers of people’s deputies of the Azerbaijan Republic and Milli Majlis formed by Supreme Council of the Azerbaijan Republic expire on a day of the first meeting of newly elected Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic.

The first meeting of newly elected Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic shall be held a week after at least 83 deputies of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic have been elected. The first session of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic will continue till 31 May, 1996.

Article 85 of the Law of the Azerbaijan Republic “On elections to Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic” accepted on 15 August, 1995 remains valid till expiration of powers of the first calling of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic elected based on said law.

5. From the day of acceptance of the present Constitution Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic carries out powers delegated to it by the present Constitution.

6. From the day when the present Constitution comes into force authority of local Councils of people’s deputies of the Azerbaijan Republic are terminated.

Authority delegated by legislation of the Azerbaijan Republic to local Councils of people’s deputies of the Azerbaijan Republic are carried out by local executive power bodies.

7. After the present Constitution comes into force, the law on local self-government should be taken and elections to municipalities must take place within 2 years.

8. Provisions of laws and other normative-legal acts acting on the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic before acceptance of the present Constitution remain valid if they do not contradict the present Constitution.

9. Law courts of the Azerbaijan Republic acting before acceptance of the present Constitution shall carry out justice in accordance with authority and principles specified in the present Constitution.

10. From the day when the present Constitution comes into force, within one year laws on status of judges, judicial system and judicial reform should be taken in line with the present Constitution and judges of the Azerbaijan Republic must be appointed anew. Until said laws are taken appointment of judges to their posts and their dismissal will be done based on legislation which existed before the present Constitution came into force.

11. From the day when the present Constitution comes into force, within one year the Law of the Azerbaijan Republic about Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic shall be taken and Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic shall be established. Until the Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic is established authority of Constitutional Court of the Azerbaijan Republic envisaged by the present Constitution shall not be implemented. Question envisaged in paragraph 7, clause 3 of Article 130 of the present Constitution will be solved by Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan Republic.

12. From the day when the present Constitution comes into force the Higher Arbitration Court of the Azerbaijan Republic is called Economical Court of the Azerbaijan Republic and carries out powers defined by existing legislation.

With modifications introduced to the Constitution as a result of Referendum held on 24 August 2002.

Source: President.Az

ILHAM HAYDAR OGLU ALIYEV

THE PRESIDENT

Ilham Heydar oglu Aliyev was born in December 24, 1961, in Baku.

He attended a secondary school in Baku from 1967 till 1977.

In 1977, he entered the Moscow State University of International Relations (MSUIR).

In 1982,  upon his graduation, Mr. Aliyev had continued his education as a postgraduate student in MSUIR.

In 1985, he finalized his research works and received a PhD  degree in history.

During the years of 1985-1990, he gave lectures at the Moscow State University of International Relations.

From 1991 to 1994, he led a group of private industrial-commercial enterprises.

In 1994-2003, he was the vice-president, and later the first vice-president of the State Oil Company of the Republic of Azerbaijan (SOCAR). He had been actively involved in the implementation of Heydar Aliyev’s oil strategy.

He is an author of numerous research works on geopolitical aspects of oil strategy of sovereign Azerbaijan. He holds a degree of doctor of political sciences.

In 1995 and 2000, he was twice elected to the Milli Majlis (Parliament) of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

In 2003, he stopped his activity as a Member of Parliament due to his appointment to the post of Prime minister of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

Since 1997, Mr. Ilham Aliyev is the President of the National Olympic Committee of Azerbaijan. For his great contribution to the development of sports and Olympic movement, Mr. Aliyev was awarded the highest order of International Olympic Committee and “Grand Cordon” Order of Merit of International Military Sport Council.

He has been elected deputy chairman of the New Azerbaijan Party in 1999, first deputy chairman in 2001, and the chairman of the Party in 2005.

From 2001 to 2003, he was the head of the Azerbaijani Parliamentary delegation to Parliamentary Assembly of Council of Europe (PACE).

In January 2003, he was elected as Deputy-Chairman of Parliamentary Assembly of Council of Europe and member of the PACE bureau.

In August 4 2003, following the approval of the Milli Majlis (Parliament), he was appointed as the Prime minister of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

In October 15, 2003, he was elected as the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. More than 76% of voters supported Ilham Aliyev’s candidacy during the elections. He assumed his post on 31 October, 2003.

In April of 2004, Mr. Aliyev was awarded a medal and diploma of honorable member of PACE for his active participation in PACE events and commitment to European values.

Ilham Aliyev was elected to the second term of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, after acquiring 88% of votes of electorate in the elections, held on October 15, 2008. He started to execute the Office of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan on October 24, 2008.

As a result of the presidential elections, held on October 9, 2013, Ilham Aliyev was re-elected by a majority of voters as a President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. 84.54% of voters supported his candidacy. Ilham Aliyev took office on October 19, 2013.

Mr. Aliyev is fluent in Azerbaijani, English, Russian, French, and Turkish.

Mr. Aliyev is married, has three children and three grandchildren.

President Aliyevs’ honorary names, orders, and awards include: Heydar Aliyev Order (the Republic of Azerbaijan), Ihsan Dogramacı Prize for International Relations for Peace (Turkey), The Star of Romania Order (Romania), King Abdul Aziz Order (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), Order of Honor (Georgia), Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor (France), Sheikhulislam Order (Republic of Azerbaijan), Prepodobniy Sergiy Rodonejskiy first degree Order of Russian Orthodox Church, Grand Cordon Order of Merit (International Military Sport Council), Honorary decoration of International Confederation of Sport Organizations of CIS countries, highest order of FİLA Sport legend, Grand Cross of Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland (Republic of Poland), Order of Prince Yaroslav Mudry of 1st Class (Ukraine), Mubarak Al-Kabeer Order (Kuwait), Gold medal of the Hellenic Republic (Greece), Badge of Honor of European Fair Play Movement, Order of the Three Stars (Commander of the Grand Cross) (Latvian Republic); The National Order "Faithful Service" in rank of Grand Cross Special Order (Romania), Order of “İsmoili Somoni” (Tajikistan), Order of the State of Republic of Turkey (Turkey).

Honorary Doctor of Lincoln University (USA), Honorary Doctor of the Moscow State University of International Relations, Honorary Professor of L.N.Gumilev Eurasian National University (Kazakhstan), Honorary Doctor of Bilkent University (Turkey), Honorary Doctor of National Academy for Taxes (Ukraine), Honorary Doctor of  Petroleum and Gas University of Ploesti (Romania), Honorary Professor of University of National and World Economy (Bulgaria), Honorary Doctor of Kyung Hee University (South Korea), Honorary Doctor of Jordan University (Jordan), Honorary Doctor in Social Sciences of the Corvinus University (Republic of Hungary), Honorary Professor of Moscow State University (Russian Federation), Honorary Doctor of the Kiev National University named after Taras Shevchenko (Ukraine), Honorary Professor of the Turkmenistan State University after Makhtumkuli (Turkmenistan), Honorary Doctor of the Baku State University (Azerbaijan), Honorary Professor of the Belarusian State University (Belarus), Honorary Doctor of the Ankara University (Turkey), Honorary Doctor of Cukurova University (Turkey), Honorary Professorship in History by Renmin University (China).

PRESIDENTIAL POWER
Source: President.Az

ALIYEVA MEHRIBAN ARIF QIZI

FIRST LADY & VICE PRESIDENT

Aliyeva Mehriban Arif gizi was born in the city of Baku.

In 1982 she graduated from the secondary school number 23 in the city of Baku with gold medal and admitted to the preventive-treatment faculty of the Azerbaijan State Medical Institute named after N.Narimanov.

In 1988 she obtained the distinction diploma from the 1st Moscow State Medical Institute named after M.Sechenov.

In 1988-1992 she worked at the Eye Diseases Scientific-Research Institute in Moscow under the leadership of academician Krasnov.

In 1995 "Friends of Azerbaijani Culture" Charitable Foundation was established by the initiative of Mehriban Aliyeva and is being run by her at present time.

In 1996 Mehriban Aliyeva founded "Azerbaijan - Heritage" magazine, which is published in three languages (Azerbaijani, English and Russian) with a view to promote widely the Azerbaijani culture.

In 2002 Mehriban Aliyeva was elected the President of Azerbaijan Gymnastics Federation and demonstrated herself as a skillful organizer in that position. Her growing prestige in international level played an important role in adoption of the decision by the International Gymnastics Federation to hold 2003 and 2004 World Cup competitions, as well as 2005 World Championship on Rhythmic Gymnastics in Azerbaijan.

Mehriban Aliyeva is leading the Heydar Aliyev Foundation which was founded to study the rich legacy of nationwide leader of Azerbaijan and transmit the national Statehood ideas forged by Heydar Aliyev to new generations. An official opening of the Heydar Aliyev Foundation has been held on May 10, 2004.

As the recognition of her relentless efforts in protection and development of Azerbaijan's intangible folk literature and music heritage, Mehriban Aliyeva was awarded the title of Goodwill Ambassador of UNESCO on August 13, 2004.

In 28 December 2004 Mehriban Aliyeva was elected the member of Executive Committee of NOC during IV General Assembly of the National Olympic Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

Mehriban Aliyeva has been member of the New Azerbaijan Party’s Political Board since 2004.

Mehriban Aliyeva has been awarded the title of "Woman of Year" according to the sociologic poll held in Azerbaijan in 2005.

In 9 June 2005, she was elected as the recipient of “the Ruby Cross” order of “Philanthropists of the Century” International Charity Foundation of Russia for her public, philanthropic and charity activity, as well as support to the educational and cultural institutions, significant contributions to the consolidation of friendship between Russian and Azerbaijani peoples.

In 2005 Mehriban Aliyeva was obtained an academic degree of PhD in philosophy.

Mehriban Aliyeva, whose candidacy was initiated by Yeni Azerbaijan Party on November 6, 2005 elections to the Milli Majlis of Republic of Azerbaijan from Azizbeyov second constituency number 14, has been elected MP with 92,12% vote (23106 votes).

The Fund of National Hero Chingiz Mustafayev and ANS Group of Companies have declared Mehriban Aliyeva, the President of Heydar Aliyev Foundation and "Friends of Azerbaijani Culture" Charitable Foundation, UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador and the member of the Milli Majlis as “the Person of 2005” for her services in development of the education system of our country, protection and promotion of our national cultural heritage, her works fulfilled to strengthen the positive image of Azerbaijan in the world, organization and realization of The World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships in Azerbaijan, as well as large scale philanthropic activities.

In 24 November 2006, Mrs. Mehriban Aliyeva was awarded the title of Goodwill Ambassador of ISESCO for her wide and brave activities in different fields of life, including the dialog among civilizations, the attention to the children in need, her solid support to the improvement of their living conditions, education, and the projects implemented in Islamic world.

M.Aliyeva was awarded the prize of World Health Organization for her great contributions to the protection and strengthening of mother, child and family health upon the unanimous decision of the 120th session of Executive Committee of the Organization held in Geneva, January 29, 2007.

Mehriban Aliyeva was presented in May 2007 with Golden Heart International Award for wide-scale charity activities and high achievements in field of service to the higher ideals of mankind.

M.Aliyeva was awarded the Heydar Aliyev Prize for fruitful action in public-political and cultural life of the Republic of Azerbaijan by the Order of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan of 5 May 2009.

September 14, 2009 Mrs Mehriban Aliyeva was awarded the Grand Commander’s Cross of the Order of Merit of the Polish Republic for contributions to development of friendly ties between Azerbaijan and Poland.

February 15, 2010 Mrs Mehriban Aliyeva awarded the Officer Class of the National Order of Legion of Honor by the order of the President of the Republic of France for outstanding service and loyalty to France.

Source: President.Az

HEYDAR ALIRZA OGLU ALIYEV

NATIONAL LEADER

Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev was born on 10 May 1923 in Nakhchyvan City of Azerbaijan. In 1939, after graduating from the Nakhchyvan Pedagogical School he studied at the Architecture Department of the Azerbaijan Industry Institute (present Azerbaijan State Oil Academy). The incipient war impeded to complete his education.

From 1941, Heydar Aliyev headed the department at the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Nakhchyvan and in 1944 was sent to work at the state security bodies. Heydar Aliyev, working since that time in the security bodies, from 1965 held the post of deputy chairman, and from 1967 chairman of the Committee of State Security under the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Azerbaijan, and he was conferred the rank of lieutenant general. These years, he received special higher education in Leningrad (present St Petersburg), and in 1957 he graduated from the History Department of the Azerbaijan State University.

Being elected at the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan in July 1969 as the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev became the head of the republic. In December 1982, Heydar Aliyev was elected a member of Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Soviet Union, and appointed to the post of the First Deputy Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR, and became one of the leaders of the USSR. For twenty years Heydar Aliyev was the deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the Azerbaijan SSR, and for five years he worked as the Deputy Chairman of the Soviet of the Union of Supreme Soviet of the USSR.

In October 1987, Heydar Aliyev, as a sign of protest against the policy pursued by Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and personally the Secretary General Michael Gorbachev, resigned from his post.

In bound with the tragedy committed on 20 January 1990 in Baku by the soviet troops appearing in the next day at the Azerbaijan Representation in Moscow with a statement Heydar Aliyev demanded to punish the organizers and executors of the crime committed against the people of Azerbaijan. As a sign of protest against the hypocritical policy of leadership of the USSR, in connection with the critical conflict accrued in Daghlig Garabagh, in July 1991 he left the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

By return in July 1990 to Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev lived in Baku, then in Nakhchyvan, and in the same year was elected a deputy to the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan. In 1991-1993, he held the post of Chairman of the Supreme Assembly of the Autonomous Republic of Nakhchyvan, Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan. In 1992, at the constituent congress of the New Azerbaijan Party in Nakhchyvan, Heydar Aliyev was elected Chairman of the Party.

In May-June 1993, when, as a result of extreme tension of the governmental crisis, the country was at the verge of civil war and loss of independence, the people of Azerbaijan demanded to bring to power Heydar Aliyev. The then leaders of Azerbaijan were obliged to officially invite Heydar Aliyev to Baku. On 15 June 1993, Heydar Aliyev was elected Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan, and on 24 June - on resolution of the Milli Mejlis, he commenced to fulfill powers of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

On October 3, 1993, as a result of nationwide voting, Heydar Aliyev was elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. On October 11, 1998, having garnered at the elections, passed in high activeness of the population, 76,1 percent of the votes, he was re-elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Heydar Aliyev, giving his consent to be nominated as a candidate at the 15 October 2003 presidential elections, relinquished to run at the elections in connection with health problems.

On 12 December 2003 National Leader of the Azerbaijani people Heydar Aliyev passed away in Cleveland Hospital in the United States of America.

Heydar Aliyev was awarded a number of state orders and medals, international awards, elected honorable doctor of universities in many countries.

Heydar Aliyev was awarded the Lenin Order five times, Order of Red Star, numerous medals, also orders and medals of foreign countries, received rank of the Hero of the Socialistic Labor twice.

On 27 March 1997 the head of the state of Azerbaijan was awarded in Kiev the "Yaroslav Mudry" Order, the supreme order of Ukraine.

On 13 April 1999 President Heydar Aliyev was awarded the "Peace Premium of Ataturk" Order, the high order of Turkey.

On 20 January 1999 President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev was awarded the rank of the Honorable Professor of Moscow State University.

On 3 April 2003 President Heydar Aliyev was elected professor and full member of the Academy of Safety, Defense and Legal Norms Problems of the Russian Federation, awarded the premium of Y.V.Andropov.

On 10 May 2003 decree was signed on awarding Heydar Aliyev the Order of Saint Apostle Andrey Pervozvanny, the supreme order of Russia.

Source: President.Az

 

The Nagorno Karabakh conflict became as one of the most tragic conflicts in the history of XX century and affected the destiny of millions. This conflict provoked in 1988 retains still its hostile status because the Armenian side believes that the conflict is the antagonistic one and runs by its own rule “either all or nothing”. Backstage-minded events which were out of the public limelight have paved the way to the open and precedent like phase of the conflict. This hidden and latent part of the story has been unfolding in long lasting activities of some Armenian public figures in the Soviet Union and the Armenian Diaspora abroad. The Armenian side has cared for years to deteriorate the hostile situation by having pondering on the ethnocratic nature of its plot. The ethnocratism has been intended to enable the realization of the Armenian goals at the expense of other peoples. It aimed the following irredentist idea – to attach the Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (established in 1923) of the Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic to the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. First patterns of the irredentist idea (so-called “miatsum”) formed for many years have got its shape during mass rallies in Yerevan in Autumn 1987 where the public demands to subordinate NKAO (Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast) to the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic have been explicitly announced. In this light, the conflict has gradually passed to the phase of incidents. The process had some inner dynamics: it was known by the velocity of events which have logically led to the bloodbath, the tragedy for many people who were odd to the idea of the territorial expansion.

The activities of the Armenian ethnocrats have been supported by A.Aganbekyan, the academician in his scandalous interview given to L’Humanite newspaper in November 1987. It became the ominous sign which demonstrated that some part of the Soviet elite of Armenian origin is openly ignoring the official norms of peoples’ coexistence in the Soviet Union. While “Ochag” book written by the ethnocrat Z.Balayan and published in Armenian in 1985 in both Armenian and Russian languages was a mere monumental detail deplored by the society, Aganbekyan’s statement signaled an open passage to the systematic actions and declarations.

In November 1987, the conflict gets the massive character: the campaign to oust Azerbaijanis from the Kaphan district of the Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic is being launched. For the first time since 1920 in South Caucasus, innocent people are put on sufferings due to their ethnic background. In the end of January 1988, no any single Azerbaijan has been left in Kaphan region. In November – December 1988, the same destiny awaited also other Azerbaijanis living in other regions of Armenia. In this regard, the massive exodus of people in large numbers is starting in 1988-1990 with the exact same mutual direction – Azerbaijanis are leaving for Azerbaijan and Armenians are heading back to Armenia. The ethnically colored panorama, which could allow in the past to talk about the mutual influence on the living style and culture, is drastically fading out.

First picketing on Karabakh issue has been organized in NKAO’s oblast Center in February 13, 1988. Starting from February 16 till March 2, 1988, public rallies are being held in NKAO. The reply came immediately – the public picketing is held in Baku on February 19. The idea to struggle is propelled extensively in both Azerbaijani and Armenian societies by creating environment to sanction the actions of “the front type” persons. This chain called as the politically inexperienced masses and leaders of public rallies is defining the shapes of the policy in 80-90 years of XX century. It is indeed in the beginning of 1988, the drastic rise of opposition gets its full swing because the Armenian ethnocrats are succeeding in replacing the social discontent by the nationalist one and to spearhead the public opinion towards illusions and non-tolerance.

In February 20, 1988, the Oblast Soviet of the People’s Deputies of NKAO – regarded as the stronghold of ethnocrats and criminals – has voted for its attachment to Armenia. The special public structure called “The Committee for Reunification of NKAO with the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic” and destined to tear down the State integrity of the Union’s Republic came to light on March 2. In March 5, it got registered under the name of “Groong”. The irredentist nature of the conflict has been reflected in the establishment of “Karabakh” Committee in Yerevan. In February 21, 1988, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union takes the decision on “The Events in Nagorno Karabakh”, which qualifies the decree of the Oblast’s Soviet as the action “provoked by the nationalistic elements”. Moscow is adopting another decree “On Measures to speed up the Social and Economic Development of the Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of the Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic in 1988 -1995” on March 24, 1988.

In June 14, 1988, the Supreme Soviet of Armenia gives “its consent to include” NKAO in the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. Immediately, the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan takes the opposite decision on June 17, 1988: NKAO remains within the Republic. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of USSR adopts the logical decision on the impossibility of changing the national and territorial compositions of the Azerbaijani SSR and the Armenian SSR on July 18, 1988 taking into account the destructive character of any other step. In this case, the Supreme Soviet of USSR is guided by (the Article 78) of the Soviet Constitution which stipulates that “the territory of the Union’s Republic cannot be changed without its own consent”. During this pre-war phase of the conflict and subsequently, the moral truth was on the Azerbaijani side which defended the status quo – the administrative territorial composition which did not impede at all the comprehensive development of the Azerbaijani and Armenian peoples. It has to be underlined that main indicators of the NKAO’s social development have dominated the average Republic level of the Azerbaijani SSR and the Armenian SSR.

The Azerbaijani political elite based its position on the protectionist and State interests, but its human potential was not adequate to the complexity of the situation. The absence of Heydar Aliyev, the statesman who had the experience in ruling the multinational society, had a huge and direct impact of the conflict unfolding and its subsequent phases.

As the overall weakening of the State machine of USSR became faster, all measures destined to calm down the Azerbaijani and the Armenian communities in NKAO were doomed to failure. In this context, the activities of the Committee of the Special Administration (CSA) (existed from January 12 to November 28, 1989) became also ineffective. The situation was further exacerbated by still going on Cold War between USSR and USA. The US Senate passed the resolution entitled “the US assistance in peaceful regulation of the Nagorno Karabakh dispute at the basis of the desire of the people of the Soviet Armenia” on July 19, 1989. In November 19, 1989, the US Senate expresses its wish “to assist the fair resolution of the Nagorno Karabakh conflict in the course of bilateral talks with the Soviet Union, which would really reflect the aspirations of the people of that Oblast”. The rights advocating movement formed in USSR and in particular, “The Memorial” organization are unilaterally defending the Armenian separatists saying rightly that this choice is something more meaningful than the tacit domination.

In December 1, 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR has taken the unprecedented decision “On the Reunification of the Armenian SSR and Nagorno Karabakh”. In January 9, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of Armenia has included the plan on the social and economic development of NKAO in the Republican plan for 1990. NKAO held the parliamentary elections to send its representatives to the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR on May 20, 1990. This series of events have left no doubt in irredentist position of Armenia which was subsequently just masked. In May 1990, the Armenian All National Movement has won the parliamentary elections in Armenia. Ascension of separatists to power meant the only thing: to wage an aggressive war with the ideas like “reunification” and “people’s self-determination right”. In fact, the military ethnocratic circles have acceded to power in Armenia, which advocated the only forceful way of the problem resolution.

The decision “On the Reunification of the Armenian SSR and Nagorno Karabakh” taken on December 1, 1989 had very serious consequences to the relations between peoples by stirring up the cold war between Azerbaijani and Armenia, and accordingly, the rise of mass hatred towards aggressors. It leads openly to the qualitative enlargement of the zone of conflict and its general expansion. After known January events of 1990 in Baku, the Kremlin profile and President Gorbachev’s image became negative indices in the country.

Heydar Aliyev’s revealing speech made in Moscow on January 20 has ensured the combination of sound intellectual grounds for the society which were directed to sort out from the crisis of the Azerbaijani Statehood. January Events in Baku have been marked by the passage of the Azerbaijani elite to a new political and philosophical position – the deteriorating conflict became the catalyst in formatting new program goals. The failure of the authorities of the Azerbaijani SSR in January 1990 has signaled the inadequacy of the policy based upon the class internationalism in large Imperial space. A new ideological paradigm was destined to ensure the transition of Azerbaijan to the National State. But newly formed leaders of Azerbaijan were late in passing to a new policy. They have made mistakes in temporal measuring of events. Meanwhile, Heydar Aliyev was also in forced isolation. This was the man with already proved political drive who could feel the timeliness and the space. He was able to analyze the course of events before actions and understand that every of the planned step should rely upon the tough subjective will of the State.

The Republican Organizing Committee for NKAO created at the basis of the decree of the Supreme Soviet of USSR was helpless – it is well seen today – because it has been linked to the weakening possibilities of the overall Union’s system, which was objectively interested in self-survival. Nevertheless, starting from January 25, 1990, the Organizing Committee has strived in its every step the political-legal and psychological basis of NKAO by helping the population to get rid of the ethnic intolerance feelings. Its activities became definitely idle in the aftermath of the August events of 1991 which have completely discredited the all Union’s Statehood. Hypocrisy and duplicity of the Gorbachev’s policy were seen as the elements “to build” a new political reality. It was far from promising any relieving prospective to the Azerbaijani nation. In September 2, 1991, “The Nagorno Karabakh Republic” (NKR) has been declared within boundaries of NKAO and the Shaumyan region of the Azerbaijani SSR. As a reply measure, Azerbaijan has taken the decision on November 23, 1991 which repealed the autonomous status of Nagorno Karabakh. But, in November 27, 1991, the latest creature of Gorbachev – so-called “The State Council of USSR” has deemed this decision of Azerbaijan as the anti-Constitutional. In December 10, 1991, the referendum masterminded earlier was held in “NKR” to vote for the independence of the Armenian community. The Independence Declaration of the mono-ethnic “Nagorno Karabakh Republic” has been adopted on January 6, 1992. After having adopted these decisions, the Armenian separatists have provoked the transition from the cold war to the full scale military operations accompanied by the mass perishing of absolutely innocent Azerbaijanis and Armenians who became the hostages of the Yerevan aggressive aspirations.

During military campaign of 1992 and 1993, Armenia has occupied 20 percent of the Azerbaijani territory. “As an outcome of the war, more than one million of people have been subjected to the ethnic cleansing by Armenia”. Mr.Ilham Aliyev, the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan has underlined the following: “The occupation of the territory of the sovereign State with its internationally recognized boundaries – our territorial integrity is recognized by the United Nations… has been left out of due attention of the international community… All of these facts are the ever seen injustice which lasts over long years”.

In 1993, the Azerbaijani nation has personally experienced the need for building strong basis of the State, human potential in quality of professional staff worked for life and in particular, the creative minded leader. This Nation got the historic Fortune: all of this was in its hands. In order to attain this level, there was a need for the will of people which Aristotle used to call as the Entelechy – to transit from the potential into the factual.

Heydar Aliyev’s comeback on June 15, 1993 has turned a new page in the Nagorno Karabakh conflict. In 1993, Heydar Aliyev has paved the way towards a new Azerbaijani Statehood. In this context, the Nagorno Karabakh problem has been considered only through the following prism: “The Territorial integrity of Azerbaijan is not and will never be the topic of negotiations… Azerbaijan will not retreat from this position in any single step. This means that in territorial integrity of Azerbaijan … there will be no compromise”. These words are reflecting the continuation of the political course of Heydar Aliyev realized by Mr. Ilham Aliyev, the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

In 1993, Heydar Aliyev has factually been left in front of the very grave consequences caused by objective and subjective reasons. He concluded that the resolution of the Nagorno Karabakh problem envisages the synthetic approach and the necessary consideration of many factors in internal and external policies. In particular, it meant the beginning of the formation of the regular mighty army, the creation of the stable authorities, the restoration and reformation of economy, the signature of oil contract and definitely, the consolidation of the nation. Heydar Aliyev used to say: “I needed two and a half years to establish order”. In 1993-1994, Heydar Aliyev has been acknowledging that he used “to spend 80 percent of his long working day” for solving this problem.

In May 5, 1994, Bishkek Protocol on ceasefire has been signed. In the result of the Armenian aggression, the following seven regions have fallen under the occupation – Kelbajar, Lachin, Kubatly, Zanghilan, Agdam and Fizuli. Almost one million of people have become refugees and internally displaced persons.

The escalation of the armed conflict in 1993 has brought the UN Security Council to the decision to adopt 4 resolutions in 1993: April 30, July 29, October 14 and November 12, 1993. These resolutions confirm the territorial integrity of the Republic of Azerbaijan and use the following wording – “The Nagorno Karabakh region of the Republic of Azerbaijan” which is incorporated into the texts of UN General Assembly annual resolutions “On Co-operation between the Organization of the United Nations and the Organization for the Security and the Co-operation in Europe”.

The decisions taken in OSCE framework are based upon the UN Security Council resolutions, the legal-normative basis and the mechanism of the negotiation process. Already, in 1992, Foreign Ministers of CSCE have expressed their concern about the extending armed conflict in Nagorno Karabakh at the additional Helsinki meeting and their desire to convene the special conference in Minsk. During CSCE Budapest Summit held in 1994, the adherence to the relevant resolutions of the UN Security Council has been confirmed by the participants. They have also decided to pass to the active actions of CSCE in relation to the Nagorno Karabakh conflict. At the same time, heads of States and governments have inducted the CSCE Chairman-in-office to nominate the co-chairmen of the Minsk Conference in order to forge the common and consistent basis for talks as well as to ensure the full coordination of all mediation and negotiation activities. Heads of States and governments have also expressed their political readiness to allocate multinational forces of CSCE to maintain peace as both sides will reach the political agreement on stopping the armed conflict.

While heads of CIS States have been signing the Memorandum on Maintaining the peace and stability in the Commonwealth of Independent States in 1995, Armenian has refused to endorse 7th and 8th Items of the document which stipulate the following: “The participating States will undertake in their own territories measures to prevent any pattern of separatism, nationalism, chauvinism and fascism, and they are also committed neither to support the separatist movements in the territories on the territories of other participating States and any separatist regimes nor to extend them economic, financial, military and other assistance”.

In December 2-3, 1996, Armenia is blocking the Final Declaration in OSCE Lisbon Summit which recognizes the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan.

Mediators of OSCE Minsk Group are presenting a new plan for peaceful settlement on September 20-24, 1997. In accordance with this plan, “Nagorno Karabakh is the State and territorial entity within Azerbaijan”. In November 1998, OSCE Minsk Group proposes the idea of the so-called “common State” rejected by Azerbaijan. Final documents of OSCE Istanbul Summit held in November 1999 do not contain a direct reference to the principle of the territorial integrity of the Republic of Azerbaijan in relation to the settlement of the Nagorno Karabakh conflict.

The Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict has been also considered in the Council of Europe. In 1997, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has adopted the resolution “On the Conflicts in the South Caucasus” which stipulates that the political settlement of the conflict in Nagorno Karabakh must be the topic of talks taking into account, in particular, the principles of inviolability of the State borders and the large autonomy status for Nagorno Karabakh.

In April 25, 1999, the President of Azerbaijan and Armenia – Heydar Aliyev and Robert Kocharian are holding the first bilateral meeting in Washington. They meet again in Paris on January 26 and March 4-5, 2001 and later on, in Key West on April 3-7, 2001.

In 2006, OSCE Minsk Group has proposed to hold in future the referendum to define the status of Nagorno Karabakh with the condition to withdraw the Armenian troops from the Azerbaijan lands which are currently under occupation.

It should be noted that such meetings were also held between Presidents Ilham Aliyev and Robert Kocharian starting from their first talks in Geneva on December 11, 2003.

Such order of events demonstrates the radical difference either in the nature of steps made by Azerbaijan and Armenia – two States of the South Caucasus, or in their conceptual approach to the conflict resolution.

The Statehood building culture of Azerbaijan has been representing and still represents the synergy of knowledge, abilities and experience of peoples lived in Azerbaijan for centuries. The Azerbaijani political, e.g. civil nation has been forming in the course of XX century. “The State becomes richer if it is populated by many peoples because every of these peoples bring its own contribution to the world culture and civilization”. This formula of Heydar Aliyev is reflecting the quintessence nature of the modern Azerbaijani Statehood. These are the political and psychological as well as ideological-cultural origins of the policies of the modern Azerbaijani State.

The modern Republic of Azerbaijan regards the existence of a people as the result of the civil and political self-determination of the peoples in Azerbaijan. In this main sense, the problem of “the ethnic self-determination further up to the separation” within one nation is considered as the false problem. The ethnocratic nationalism used as a tool to breakdown the national States is groundless in its main argument. The ethnos within the nation-State cannot be the political-legal entity. It can enjoy only being as the cultural and historical entity. The modern nation-States are multiethnic. The State where the many ethnos communities are not united into the political nation under the common national interest and supra-ethnic ideology can exist only in critical situation, if possible. This is the general political philosophy of the Azerbaijani State that can be applied to the Nagorno Karabakh conflict.

The future of the Nagorno Karabakh conflict is not the direct continuation of the current state of affairs. It is mainly linked to the fact that the events in the diplomatic history after the signature of ceasefire are valued at the basis of the only moral criteria formulated by Mr. Ilham Aliyev, the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan: “Of course, we are happy to gain the diplomatic success… But if our lands are still under occupation, it means that all these results do not enjoy the principal importance. They will be only meaningful as the Azerbaijani lands will be liberated from the occupational forces and our fellow citizens will go back to their native homes. Our compatriots must come back to the occupied lands – territories adjacent to Nagorno Karabakh and the Nagorno Karabakh itself”.

Criteria of evaluating the diplomatic efforts are reflected in the practice and the incontestable achievements of the Azerbaijani State which are extrapolated rightly in the overall might of the country. “Our largest compromise is our commitment to the peace talks. But we have to create a new situation using these possibilities. I want to reaffirm that the strengthening of the military potential is not leading to the automatic restoration of war. This is the very last option. We have to be ready for it. Every country must be ready, including our country which is in the state of war with its occupied lands. At the same time, I am convinced that we will be able to exert a strong pressure on Armenia by using all political, economic, diplomatic and regional factors. This is already felt by anyone.” – says Mr. I.Aliyev, the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

The Nagorno Karabakh problem will be solved in favor of the citizens of the multinational Azerbaijan. Our country was and will be the common house of all its residing peoples.

Source: President.Az

NATIONAL ANTHEM

of AZERBAIJAN

After declaration of the independence of Azerbaijan on May 28, 1918 and establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic together with the State flag and Coat of arms there were implemented certain measures on creation and adoption of the State anthem. On January 30, 1920 the Council of Ministries of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic adopted the resolution on creation of the state anthem and state coat of arms; following this resolution the Ministry of Education announced a competition. However, the collapse of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic on April 28, 1920 did not allow adoption of the state anthem. On May 27, 1992 Milli Mejlis adopted the Law “On State anthem of the Republic of Azerbaijan”. According to the Law the "Azerbaijani March" of composer Uzeyir Hajibayov and poet Ahmad Javad, which was created in 1919, was approved as the State anthem of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Regulations on the State anthem of the Republic of Azerbaijan were approved by the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan dated March 2, 1993.

State anthem of the Republic of Azerbaijan is performed at the beginning and end of the sessions of Milli Mejlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan, when the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan comes to the meetings of Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic, at opening and closing ceremonies of solemn events and meetings on the occasion of national holidays, every day at the beginning and at the end of the national television and radio programs, on the occasion of significant historical events in the life of the Azerbaijan people, when opening monuments and memorial boards in honor of the prominent political, state and military leaders, national heroes, science, literature and art people, at the events being held by state and public institutions, entities, bodies and organizations and during other solemn ceremonies, when raising the State flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan and welcoming/seeing off state and national leaders of foreign countries visiting the Republic of Azerbaijan for official meetings. In all cases, the State anthem of the Republic of Azerbaijan is being performed completely.

National Anthem of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920) The Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic carried out a decision on the development of the National Anthem of the Republic on January 30, 1920 and for this purpose the Ministry of National Education declared a competition. The "March of Azerbaijan", has been created by prominent composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov and poet Ahmed Djavad in 1919 as the National Anthem of the Azerbaijan Republic. Yet the collapse of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic on April 28, 1920 prevented this process. Uzeyir bey Abdul Hussein oglu Hajibeyov - was an Azerbaijani composer, conductor, scientist, publicist, playwright, teacher, translator, and social figure. He is recognized as the father of Azerbaijani classical music and opera. Uzeyir Hajibeyov composed music for the National Anthem of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (also the anthem of the modern Republic of Azerbaijan) as well as the State Anthem of Azerbaijan SSR Ahmad Javad Akhundzade - was an Azerbaijani poet. In 1918 he became a member of the Musavat Party, and later became a member of the central committee. Javad was also the leader of the Musavat Literature Union (‘Yashil Galamlar). He was arrested and executed in October 1937 for being a "counter-revolutionary". Javad is best known for writing the words of the Azerbaijani National Anthem, as well as several poems.


Music by : Useyir Hajibeyov
Words by : Ahmed Javad

Azerbaijani lyrics English translation

Azərbaycan! Azərbaycan!
Ey qəhrəman övladın şanlı Vətəni!
Səndən ötrü can verməyə cümlə hazırız!
Səndən ötrü qan tökməyə cümlə qadiriz!
Üç rəngli bayrağınla məsud yaşa!
Üç rəngli bayrağınla məsud yaşa!

Minlərlə can qurban oldu,
Sinən hərbə meydan oldu!
Hüququndan keçən əsgər!
Hərə bir qəhrəman oldu!

Sən olasan gülüstan,
Sənə hər an can qurban!
Sənə min bir məhəbbət
Sinəmdə tutmuş məkan!

Namusunu hifz etməyə,
Bayrağını yüksəltməyə,
Namusunu hifz etməyə,
Cümlə gənclər müştaqdır!

Şanlı Vətən! Şanlı Vətən!
Azərbaycan! Azərbaycan!
Azərbaycan! Azərbaycan!

Azerbaijan! Azerbaijan!
The heroic patriotic glorious land!
To die for you we are glad and we are ready!
If there is need to shed blood, we too are ready!
With three color banner live happily!
With three color banner live happily!

Sacrifices too many done,
Every soldier to front has gone!
When your chest was field of battle!
Come back as a heroic son!

Let me see you flourish,
Let your enemies perish!
I love you, my dear land
Be mightier we do wish!

To safeguard your sacred land,
To hold high your honored flag,
To safeguard your sacred land,
All the youngsters are too glad!

Glorious land, glorious land!
Azerbaijan! Azerbaijan!
Azerbaijan! Azerbaijan!

Download the Anthem

WRITER

of the HYMN

Also known as Javad bey
Born : May 5, 1892
Origin : Seyfali, Shamkir rayon, Azerbaijan
Died : October 13, 1937 (aged 45), Baku
Genres Classical
Occupation(s) : Poet
Years active : 1918-1937
Website : Visions.az

COMPOSER

of the ANTHEM

Also known as Uzeyir Bey
Born : September 18, 1885
Origin : Agjabadi, Azerbaijan
Died : November 23, 1948 (aged 63), Baku
Genres Classical
Occupation(s) : Composer,conductor, publicist, playwright,
teacher,translator
Years active : 1908-1944
Website : www.hajibeyov.com

AZERBAIJAN

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

Azerbaijan is a democratic, legal, secular Republic. A universal referendum adopted the Constitution of Azerbaijan on November 12, 1995. The Republic proclaimed its independence on August 30, 1991. The system of government administration of Azerbaijan is based on the principles of separation of powers: legislative, executive and judicial.



The head of state is the President. The executive power is vested in the President. The President is elected for a 5 year term by direct elections. As the result of a general presidential elections held on October 3 1993, Heydar Aliyev was elected the President of Azerbaijan Republic. Last time the president Heydar Aliyev was elected on October 11, 1998.

The legislative power is vested in Milli Mejlis - a one chamber Parliament that consists of 125 deputies elected on the basis of a majority and proportional electoral system and general, equal, direct elections for 5 years term. The latest elections to Milli Mejlis were held on November 5, 2000. Majority votes were gained by the party "Yeni Azerbaijan" ("New Azerbaijan").

The supreme body of the executive power of the President is the Cabinet of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister. The judicial power is vested in independent courts of Azerbaijan: Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and High Economic Court. The official language of the Azerbaijan Republic is the Azerbaijan language spoken by 95% of the population. The religion of a large part of the population is Islam.

The Republic includes Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic with the town of central submission - Nakhchivan, Julfa, Ordubad (regions of the same name), and also Babek, Sadarak, Shakbuz and Sharur districts. Administratively the republic is divided into 65 rural regions. There are 11 towns of the Republican submission (Baku, Ganja, Sumgayit, Ali-Bayramly, Lankaran, Mingechevir, Naftalan, Khankendi, Sheki, Guba, Shusha).

The capital of Azerbaijan is Baku. The city occupies the territory of 192 thousand hectares. The population is about 2 million people.

ARTICLE 23

AZERBAIJAN STATE SYMBOLS (Constitution article)

I. State symbols of the Republic of Azerbaijan shall be: the Republic of Azerbaijan Flag, the Republic of Azerbaijan Emblem, the Republic of Azerbaijan National Anthem.

II. The Flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan shall consist of three wide stripes. The upper stripe shall be of blue colour, the middle stripe shall be red and the lower one shall be green. There shall he a white crescent and eightpointed star in the middle of the red stripe on both sides of the Flag. The proportion of the width to the length shall be 1 by 2. III. The design of the Republic of Azerbaijan Flag and the Republic of Azerbaijan State Emblem, the music and the text of the Republic of Azerbaijan National Anthem shall be defined by the Constitutional Law.

The Republic of Azerbaijan Flag

On November 9th, 1918 government of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic adopted resolution on national three colored flag. After the fall of ADP on April 28, 1920 and establishment of Soviet power in Azerbaijan this flag was rejected.

On November 17, 1990 three colored flag was for the second restored in its rights by the resolution of Supreme Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic and accepted as national flag of Autonomous Republic. At the same session Supreme Majlis of Nakhichevan solicited Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR for recognition of three colored flag as a national symbol of Azerbaijan.

On February 5, 1991 Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan Republic considered a solicitation for recognition three colored flag as a National Flag of Azerbaijan.

National Flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan consists of three equal in length horizontal stripes. The upper stripe is blue, middle is red, lower is green colored. Blue color has meaning of Turkic origin of Azerbaijani nation, red color has reflects the heading to modernization of society and development of democracy, and the green color shows belonging to Islamic civilization. In the center of red stripe on both sides of flag there is white crescent and eight-angled star. Proportions of width of the flag to the length is 1:2.

The Republic of Azerbaijan Emblem

On January 30, 1920 government of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic adopted resolution on announcement a competition of the best National emblem of republic. It was mentioned in the resolution that adoption of the emblem will be on May 28. But in the result of fall on April 28, 1920 of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic emblem wasn't adopted.

On November 17, 1990 Supreme Majlis of Nakhichevan AR, after having discussed question on National emblem solicited Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR on announcement a competition for processing the National emblem of Azerbaijan.

Competition was announced on February 5, 1991 according to resolution of Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan Republic. During 1991-1992 there were tens of projects of new National emblem, on discussions there were also suggestions on adoption on the projects designed in 1919-1920.

On January 19, 1993 Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan passed Constitutional Law according to which project of National emblem of 1919-1920 with some changes was adopted.

National emblem of the Republic of Azerbaijan is the symbol f sovereignty of Azerbaijan state. National emblem represents an image of oriental escutcheon, placed on the arch composed of oak branches and ears. On the escutcheon in background of colors of National flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan there is image of eight-angled star and in the center of star there are tongues of flame.

Convex image of National flag (emblem) is represented:

at the residence and office room of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan;

on the wall of parliament building, in the session hall and office room of the chairman of parliament of the Republic of Azerbaijan;

on the walls of buildings of all courts, military tribunals, in the halls of court sessions, in the office rooms of chairmen of Constitutional Court and Supreme Court of the Republic of Azerbaijan;

in cases provided by legislation of the Republic of Azerbaijan, on the walls of buildings of state structures;

on the walls of buildings of diplomatic and trade representatives of consular offices of the Republic of Azerbaijan .





Azerbaijan Manat Area: 86,600 sq km; 11.5% forests, 1.6% water, 50% agricultural land, 27% pasture, and 36.9% other. The country is situated at 44o and 52' East longitude, and 38o and 42' North latitude; Baku lies right on the 40th parallel.
Population: 8,347,300 (2005). 50.8% urban, 49.2% rural.
Capital od Azerbaijan: Baku
The President of the Azerbaijan Republic: Ilham Aliyev
Major languages: Azeri is the official language. Other languages: Russian, Georgian, and Lezghi. Russian and Turkish are widely spoken.
Religion: Majority of the population is Muslim. Other religions include Orthodox Christianity, Catholicism, Protestantism, and Judaism.
Time Zone: GMT + 4 hours
Azerbaijan currency: Manat (1 Manat = 100 Quapik)
Domain: .az
International dialing code: +994
Entry formalities: Valid passport is required. Entry visa required by all. Entry visa may be obtained upon arrival at Baku Airport.
Electric current: Voltage is 220V, 50 Hz.

Currency: The National currency of Azerbaijan is the Azeri Manat (AZM). Foreign currency and travelers cheques can be exchanged for Azeri Manat in all banks. In addition, currency can be exchanged at all official exchange points, which can be found everywhere. It is necessary to keep receipts of all exchanges until departure from the country. Those who change currency with unauthorized individuals take the risk of becoming a victim of scams and fraud, and carry full responsibility for possible abuses.

Credit cards: As a rule, it is possible to pay by credit card in most hotels. However, we recommended confirming in advance the acceptance of credit cards. Cash machines (ATM) are located in the most important business centers, shopping malls, and underground stations

HOLIDAYS

NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

New Year January 1
International Women's Day March 8
Novruz Bayram (Central Asian New Year) March 20-21
Victory Day (WWII) May 9
Independence Day May 28
Day of National Rescue June 15
Armed Forces Day June 26
Day of State Independence October 18
Constitution Day November 12
Day of National Revival November 17
Day of Worldwide Solidarity of Azeri People December 31

Religious Holidays of

AZERBAIJAN

Ramazan Bayram (Ramadan)
Gurban Bayram

Memorial Holidays of

AZERBAIJAN

Day of the Shehids January 20
Day of Khojali February 26
Genocide of Azerbaijanis March 31

The Labor Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan

Article 105. Holidays

1. The following is deemed as the holidays of the Republic of Azerbaijan:

The New Year's Day (1 and 2 January);

The Women's Day (8 March);

The Victory Day over fascism (9 May);

The Republic Day (28 May);

The Day of National Salvation of the Azerbaijani People (15 June);

The Armed Forces Day (26 June);

The National Independence Day (18 October);

State Flag Day of Azerbaijan (9 November);

The Constitution Day (12 November);

The National Revival Day (17 November);

The World Azerbaijanis Solidarity Day (31 December);

Novruz - five days;

Gurban - two days;

Ramadan - two days.

2. New Year's Day, Women's Day, Victory Day over fascism, Republic Day, Day of National Salvation of the Azerbaijani People; Armed Forces Day, State Flag Day of Azerbaijan, World Azerbaijanis Solidarity, Novruz, Gurban and Ramadan holidays are not deemed as the working days.

3. Engaging of the employees to the working activities during holidays that are not deemed as working days, is allowed only on exclusive occasions envisaged by the present Code.

4. Days to celebrate holidays like Novruz, Gurban and Ramadan for the next year are defined and made public by the relevant executive power authorities till the end of December of the current year.

5. If days-off are coinciding with holidays, the said days-off are transferred as the next working day after the expiry of the holiday period.

6. If holidays like Gurban and Ramadan are coinciding with other holidays, days-off, the next working day is deemed as a day-off.

7. In case when holidays and days-off are following each other or vice versa, the following working days or days-off can be changed at the basis of the decision taken by the relevant executive power authorities in order to ensure the consistency of working days and days-off.

1 JANUARY – THE NEW YEAR

January is named for Janus (Ianuarius in Latin), the Roman God. It is the first month of Gregorian calendar. The Gregorian calendar has been adopted in 1582. In Russia, the Julian calendar has been enabled by the Order of Peter the Great. In accordance with the said Order, the day of the 1st January – Birth of Jesus – has been named as the beginning of the year and XVIII century has begun from the 1st January 1701.

In 1918, the Gregorian calendar came back in force at the basis of the Decree signed by V.I.Lenin, head of government of the Soviet Russia. Doing this way, the difference between the Gregorian and the Julian calendars which was just 13 days in XX century, has been abolished. So, the day after January 31, 1918 came as the 13th of February of the same year. As it was in the past, the Gregorian calendar system is used in the Republic of Azerbaijan. Accordingly, the 1st of January is celebrated as the day-off.

Starting from 2006, January 1 and 2 are deemed as holidays and celebrated as days-off, e.g. non-working days.

Note: A new rule has been enacted from 2006 which stipulates that if the holiday is coinciding with a day-off, the next following day is deemed as a day-off.

8 MARCH – INTERNATIONAL WOMEN’S DAY

8 March – the International Day of Women’s Solidarity for their struggle to achieve economic, political and social equality. The decision to celebrate the International Women’s Day has been taken by the proposal of Clara Zetkin in the second International Conference of women socialists held in 1910 in Copenhagen. For the first time, this Day has been celebrated in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Denmark. It has been noted in Russia in 1913, in Azerbaijan – in 1917. Till 1914, this holiday was marked in various days. The tradition to celebrate the International Women’s Day came in the result of general agreement between women of Austria, Hungary, Russia, US and other States to deem it as the holiday.

Since those days, every country in the world is celebrating the 8th of March also as the Day of Solidarity and Struggle for Peace. March 8 has been announced as non-working holiday in 1965 in the Soviet Azerbaijan. After Azerbaijan has gained its independence, the 8th of March has retained its status of holiday.

Note: A new rule has been enacted from 2006 which stipulates that if the holiday is coinciding with a day-off, the next following day is deemed as a day-off.

9 MAY - THE VICTORY DAY OVER FASCISM

The Second World War (1939 - 1945) has turned into the period of terrible and tragic events for all mankind.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941 - 1945), the Azerbaijani people has demonstrated very good examples of the great heroism and bravery in frontline and behind it. In a very short period of time, 87 fighting battalions, 1124 self-defense detachments have been formed in the Republic. In 1941 – 1945, more than 600 thousands brave sons and girls from Azerbaijan have left Azerbaijan to fight the enemy. The Azerbaijani divisions have made the glorious frontline records from Caucasus to far Berlin. Almost 130 of our fellow compatriots are awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, 30 were given the Order “the Glory”. 170 thousands of soldiers and officers from Azerbaijan were awarded various orders and medals of USSR. Hazi Aslanov, two times Hero of the Soviet Union, Israfil Mamedov, Ruslan Vezirov, Adil Guliyev, Ziya Buniyatov, Gheray Asadov, Melik Maharramov, Mehdi Huseynzade, heroes of the Soviet Union, generals like Mahmud Abilov, Akim Abbasov, Tarlan Aliyarbekov, Hajibala Zeynalov and many other have written new pages in the history of our people by their bravery.

Large scale works have been fulfilled in the Republic to change the rails of national economy for serving the frontline. During short period of time, Baku has become the vast munitions warehouse for the fighting Army. In spite of unprecedented difficulties, our oil workers have sought to ensure fuel supplies to the frontline and the industries by demonstrating their resolve and heroic actions.

Under the leadership of Academician Yusif Mamedaliyev, the new technology has been invented to produce the aircraft motor gasoline. In oil history of Azerbaijan, a record indicator of oil production has been attained thanks to the hard work of our oil specialists. It was equal to 23,5 million tones of black gold which made 71.4 % of all oil extracted in USSR. In general, during wartime, oil workers of Azerbaijan have supplied 75 million tons of oil, 22 million tons of petrol and other oil products to the whole country. We can surely say that the Baku oil was one of main factors of the victory over fascism. Suffice it to say that every fourth out of five aircraft, five tanks, five automobiles have running by the Baku petrol. The Great Patriotic War has demonstrated the mass heroism and bravery of the Azerbaijani people.

Note: A new rule has been enacted from 2006 which stipulates that if the holiday is coinciding with a day-off, the next following day is deemed as a day-off.

28 MAY-THE REPUBLIC DAY

XX Century has entered into the history not only as the Century of science and technology, but also as the period of the national revival, collapse of colonial Empires and formation of the national States.

The Tsar was overthrown in Russia in the result of the February Popular Revolution of 1917. The national movement of peoples succumbed to the Tsarist power has got a steep development in the country. The Azerbaijani Democratic Republic (1918 -1920) has been established on May 28, 1918. It became the first secular, democratic State in Islamic East and laid down in the historical memory of the nation as the first experience of the Azerbaijani Statehood.

Starting from 1990, the Republic Day – the Day of restoration of the State independence is celebrated as the State holiday.

Note: A new rule has been enacted from 2006 which stipulates that if the holiday is coinciding with a day-off, the next following day is deemed as a day-off.

15 JUNE - THE DAY OF NATIONAL SALVATION OF THE AZERBAIJANI PEOPLE

Azerbaijan has gained its independence in October 1991. But first years of independence were marked by the vacuum of the political power and total crisis of the State’s foundations and all its institutions, including army and national security bodies. The situation was further exacerbated by irredentist aggression of Armenia. Real menace of civil war became apparent in Azerbaijan in summer, 1993. During such vitally important times for the Motherland, Heydar Aliyev came back to power. He has been elected as the Chairman of the Milli Mejlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan on June 15, 1993. Since that time, the 15th of July has laid into our history as the Day of the National Salvation. In June 1997, the Milli Mejlis has announced this day as holiday in accordance with public opinion.

Note: A new rule has been enacted from 2006 which stipulates that if the holiday is coinciding with a day-off, the next following day is deemed as a day-off.

26 JUNE - THE ARMED FORCES DAY OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN

The Supreme Council of the Republic of Azerbaijan has adopted the Law on the Creation of the National Army on October 9, 1991.

The 26th of June has been announced as the Armed Forces Day in accordance with the Decree of the President of Azerbaijan dated May 22, 1998.

Note: A new rule has been enacted from 2006 which stipulates that if the holiday is coinciding with a day-off, the next following day is deemed as a day-off.

18 OCTOBER - THE NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE DAY

The Declaration on the State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan has been adopted in the extraordinary session of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Azerbaijan on August 30, 1991.

The historic session of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Azerbaijan held on October 18, 1991 was known by the unanimous adoption of the Constitutional Act “On the State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan”.

The nationwide voting took place in the Republic of Azerbaijan on December 29, 1991. The ballots of this referendum have reflected the only question: “Are you for the Constitutional Act “On the State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan”?

The people of Azerbaijan has voted for the State independence.

In May 1992, the Milli Majlis (Parliament) has adopted the State Anthem of the Republic of Azerbaijan (music by Uzeir Hajibeyov, lyrics by Ahmed Javad) and later on, the State flag, the State Coat-of-Arms depicting eight points star with the flames.

9 NOVEMBER – STATE FLAG DAY OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN

State flag of Azerbaijan was adopted as a national flag for the first time by the decision of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic dated 9 November 1918, and was used as a state symbol until April of 1920. During the Soviet period of our history, it was replaced with the flag of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic.

During the social-political processes ongoing around the Nagorno-Karabakh, the flag of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was raised unofficially on the present-day Azadlyg Square of Baku on 17 November 1988 with initiative of intellectuals. 

This flag was hoisted officially in the territory of Azerbaijan over the building of the Supreme Soviet of Nakhchivan, according to the decision adopted by the Supreme Soviet of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic dated 19 January 1990. Despite the revocation of this decision by the Azerbaijan SSR Supreme Soviet 8 days later, during the session of the Supreme Assembly of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic on 17 November 1990, chaired by national leader Heydar Aliyev, the flag of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan was adopted as the state flag of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. On 5 February 1991, due to demands of Azerbaijani society, the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan Republic adopted a decree on state flag, granting the tricolor flag the status of state flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

On 18 October 1991, the Azerbaijan Republic, having restored its independence by a relevant Constitutional Act, while announcing itself the heir of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic adopted the latter’s state symbols, including the State Flag. 

Note: A new rule has been enacted from 2006 which stipulates that if the holiday is coinciding with a day-off, the next following day is deemed as a day-off.

12 NOVEMBER - THE CONSTITUTION DAY

The Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan which adopted in 1995 became the fourth Constitution of the Azerbaijani State reflecting its new historical modification. The history of the constitutional formation of the Republic of Azerbaijan mainly relies upon the period when Azerbaijan was the part of USSR.

The first Constitution of Azerbaijan was adopted on May 19, 1921 in the First All-Azerbaijani Congress of Soviets. A new redaction of the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan, which was in line with the relevant Constitution of USSR of 1924, has been adopted on March 14, 1925 in IV All-Azerbaijani Congress of Soviets. The new Constitution of the Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic has been enacted on April 21, 1978 which reflected the realities of a new historical stage in the history of the country. As the independence was gained, it became necessary to draft a new Constitution. For this reason, a special commission has been established under the leadership of President Heydar Aliyev. The Constitution has been adopted in accordance with the expressed public will in referendum held on November 12, 1995.

The Constitution of 1995 has laid the foundations of the statehood building in the Republic of Azerbaijan. The text of the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan consists of 5 sections, 12 chapters and 158 Articles.

The 12th of November is celebrated in the country as the Constitution Day of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

17 NOVEMBER- THE NATIONAL REVIVAL DAY

First days of 1988 were marked by the open aggression of Armenia against Azerbaijan. Abusing the indifferent attitude of the Soviet Union’s government, the Armenian authorities have, in fact, sanctioned the expelling of more than 200 thousands Azerbaijanis from their permanent places of residence.

On November 17, 1988, the uninterrupted public rally organized by the Azerbaijani society has started in the main square of Baku – the Azadlyg square. People were protesting the actions of the Armenian authorities and the Kremlin.

Since 1992, the 17th of November is celebrated as the National Revival Day.

31 DECEMBER - THE WORLD AZERBAIJANIS SOLIDARITY DAY

The 31st of December is celebrated annually as the World Azerbaijanis Solidarity Day. Ten millions of Azerbaijanis are living today in the world: Iran (the Southern Azerbaijan), Turkey, Germany, France, Great-Britain, USA, Middle East countries. The biggest Azerbaijani Diaspora is located in Russia and numbers 1.5 – 2 millions.

With establishment of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the public state of the Diaspora has also changed and it has initiated the multifaceted activities for the prosperity of the Azerbaijani people. In 1993, the 31st of December has been announced as the World Azerbaijanis Solidarity Day in accordance with the Presidential Decree.

Note: A new rule has been enacted from 2006 which stipulates that if the holiday is coinciding with a day-off, the next following day is deemed as a day-off.

NOVRUZ HOLIDAY

Novruz is marked to celebrate the arrival of Spring season and means the beginning of a New Year. The first day of Spring in calendar signifies the annual turn of Sun.

The historical roots of Novruz Holiday go back to the very ancient times of prophet Zardusht, (Fire Worship) – its age is within 3700 – 5000 years.

This holiday has been celebrated in ancient Babylon on the 21st of Nisan month (March and April) and lasted 12 days. Every of these 12 days had its own ceremonials (rites) and entertaining events. The first tangible heritage monument says that Novruz holiday has appeared in 505 before Christ.

Islam gave religious patterns to Novruz. But such great thinkers like Ferdowsi, Rudaki, Ibn Sina, Nizami, Saadi, Hafizi have openly stated that Novruz holiday has emerged far before Islam. Writings dedicated to Novruz are the following: “Siyasetname” of Nizami and “Novruzname” of Omar Khayyam.

Azerbaijan – the Land of Fires – has right traditions related to Fire Worshipping and in this cultural context, Novruz represents by itself the Symbol of Redemption. “The Akhyr Chershenbe”, which means the Last Tuesday before Novruz arrival, is celebrated by making a bonfire and everyone regardless of his/her age and sex should jump over the blessed fire at least seven times. Seven times jumping over the same bonfire or one time over seven bonfires. As this rite is being honored, one should said: “My yellowness is for you, your redness is for me”. The fire is never extinguished by water. It goes out by itself and then, boys and girls collect its ashes and throw it far away from native home. All this procedure means that the Redemption is done with ashes thrown away.

The Redemption using water is linked to the belief that it is a kind of purification force. During Novruz, if you jumped over the brook, it means that you have got the Redemption from all your past year’s sins. There is also another rite: to throw water to each other in the last night of the outgoing year. There is a saying that the night to next Tuesday before Novruz is marked by the stopped brooks and rivers. Everything tends to worship waters and even trees are bending downwards. If anyone will drink such water in New Year’s evening, will preserve himself from illness.

The culmination point of Novruz is marked when the old year hands over its competencies to a New Year. In accordance with ancient traditions, people used cannons and guns to shoot in honor of Novruz. Even in XIX century, N.Dubrovin wrote about this ceremony: “Cannons shots in cities and villages have announced about the arrival of Spring in Azerbaijan”. Adam Oleariy who participated in festivities organized in Azerbaijan on the occasion of the Novruz holiday, wrote: Determining the Sun height by the astronomic devices and Sun-dial, the astrologer has announced the following during the equinox: “The New Year has come”. This announcement has been immediately accompanied by cannons shots. Music tones started to be played from city towers and ramparts. The Spring holiday has begun this way” (1637).

During Novruz, the table should have seven dishes starting by the letter “S”. It should also reflect sumakh (dried barberry), vinegar, milk, semeni (sweet soup made from wheat malt with flour), sebzi (greens) etc. Mirror and candles are also put on the table. Colored eggs are placed in front of mirror. All of this is full of many symbols: the candle means fire and light which protects anyone from the evil eye. Mirror means clarification.

Traditions say that every member of the family should be at home during the first day of the holiday. People believe: “If you will not be at home during the first day of Novruz, so you will miss it seven next years”. In ancient times, external door was never closed as a rule. Light is always switched on during the first day of Novruz because the extinguished fire predicts misfortune.

Celebrating Novruz, villagers define how useful will be the newly come year. Will the new year dry or rainy? What will be the crop? In accordance with traditions, the first day of Novruz is deemed as Spring, the second is Summer, the third is Autumn and the fourth one is Winter. If the first day will appear as tranquil and clear, it means the whole year will yield good crop.

Novruz is the joyful and loved holiday. Novruz is the holiday which reflects the traditional values of Azerbaijani people.

Note: A new rule has been enacted from 2006 which stipulates that if the holiday is coinciding with a day-off, the next following day is deemed as a day-off.

GURBAN HOLIDAY

The religious holiday of making sacrifice – the Gurban Holiday is celebrated every year by all Muslim world. The religious rites of making sacrifice have existed long before Islam.

After the second year of Hijra when the prophet Mohammed has moved from Medina to Mecca, new patterns of making sacrifices in Islamic world have emerged and formed as extending assistance the poor and orphans, making good deeds to make desires come true. The religious ceremonial of making sacrifice takes its roots from the event that happened to Prophet Ibrahim. He dreamt that Allah orders him to sacrifice his son Ismail to test his belief in God. As a true follower, Ibrahim was ready to fulfill the Divine order as well as Ismail stood ready to be sacrificed. During Gurban holiday, every rich Moslem had to sacrifice an animal, share and distribute its meat to the poor and the orphans. The act of making sacrifice had to elevate anyone spiritually till the highest level of faith. The Koran says: “The Allah needs neither flesh, nor animal’s blood, but only your faith”.

The Gurban holiday is celebrated 2 days.

Note: A new rule has been enacted from 2006 which stipulates that if the holiday is coinciding with a day-off, the next following day is deemed as a day-off.

RAMADAN HOLIDAY

The holy month of Ramadan is defined as an important month for Moslems in second year of Hijra (year of 622). The month of Ramadan teaches everyone to love with all heart the deeds of Allah passing through testing of body and strengthening of moral spirit. Moslems are fasting during that month – the procedure is called orujlug.

The history of Orujlug dates back to the second year of Hijra when prophet Mohammed has determined the month of Ramadan for Moslems in the city of Medina. It is exactly during last 10 nights of the month of Ramadan Allah has gifted the Koran to Moslems. There is a saying that this handover is happened in the night from the 23rd to the 24th or in the night from the 26th to the 27th. This night is called “Laylat al-Qadr” - Night of Power and Might and described in the Koran as follows: “We have indeed revealed strength, might in the Night of Power; The Night of Power is stronger than a thousand months; The Angels descended down on the Earth and are waiting for the Allah's order; Peace in this Night until the rising of the dawn” (97:1 - 5).

During Orujlug, it is not allowed to eat in daytime, smoke and fulfill marital obligations etc. Only children, pregnant women, anyone who is seriously ill, warriors and travelers are free from fasting. Orujlug comes with the rise of a new Moon and lasts 29 – 30 days. The Koran says: “Eat and drink till you can make a difference between dark and white threads, and then respect your oruj till dusk” (2:187).

Orujlug existed even before Islam. The Koran says the following about it: “As you are instructed to respect your oruj, the same instruction was also given to your predecessors.”

Orujlug finishes with the holiday called Eid ul-Fitr. During this day, all rich and known Moslems must help the poor Moslems. Starting from 1993, the Orujlug holiday is celebrated at State level.

Note: A new rule has been enacted from 2006 which stipulates that if the holiday is coinciding with a day-off, the next following day is deemed as a day-off.
 

BLOODY

MEMORIES

· Tragedy of January 20

· Khojali genocide

· March, 31 - the day of genocide of Azerbaijanis

 

January 20, 1990 is a heroic page of the struggle of our nation for the freedom

20 January 1990 is a day, which went down in history of the struggle for the freedom and territorial integrity of Azerbaijan, as a heroism page. Leading of the battle divisions of the Soviet army aimed against wide mass who got out in the streets and squares of Baku to protest against aggressive actions of Armenia, which was raising territorial claims to our country, against protection rendered to this country by the government of the former USSR had brought to the unprecedented tragedy in Azerbaijan. On those terrible days valiant sons and daughters of our Motherland, the country's freedom, honor and dignity of whom was above all, sacrificed their own lives and rose to the top of shahid.Tragedy of January 20, which brought to huge losses and destruction of innocent people, demonstrated martial spirit, inexorability and pride of our nation, which couldn't stand the policy of the government of Gorbachev headed criminal empire treacherous towards Azerbaijan, intended to the freedom and independence. As a result of it, we gained our independence many years we had been dreaming of and our country had achieved sovereignty.

In spite of the fact that a few years has passed since those bloody days, our nation remembers that dreadful night and expresses its deep contempt to those who committed that tragedy. Our republic celebrates the day of tragedy of January 20 broadly every year, which had immortalized in the vital memory of our nation as a Day of the Nationwide Sorrow.

Khojaly genocide

Over the night from February 25 to 26, 1992 Armenian armed forces implemented the capture of the Khojaly city with support of hard equipment and the personnel of the infantry guards regiment #366 of former Soviet Union.

The massed firing with using artillery weapon, hard military equipment, which was began in the evening of February 25, preceded assault of the city.

As a result of this the fire began in the city and by five o'clock in the morning the whole city was in fire. The population (about 2500 people) remained in the city were forced to leave their houses in the hope to find the way to Aghdam - the district center and the nearest place mainly populated by Azerbaijanis.

But these plans have failed. Armenian armed forces with the military support of the infantry guards regiment destroyed Khojaly city and with particular brutality implemented carnage over the peaceful population. As a result:

613 people were killed, among them;

63 children,
106 women,
70 the elderly.
8 families were killed completely.
25 children lost both parents.
130 children lost one of the parents.

487 people were wounded, including;

76 children
1275 people were hostages
150 people were missing
The damage done to both state and private property estimated 5 billion rubles (according to the prices for 01.04.92)

These figures show the results of the most bloody tragedy of Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, which began on February, 1988 with illegal demands of ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of Azerbaijan SSR to join Armenia SSR that was provoked with direct support of ruling circles of the Armenian SSR, consent and inactivity of central authorities of Soviet Union.

Khojaly - the main target

Khojaly assault by Armenian armed forces was predetermined by strategic location of the city. The city with population of 7000 people is situated 10 kilometers to South-East from Khankendi. Khojaly is situated on the way Aghdam-Shusha, Askeran-Khankendi and has an airport, the only in Nagorno-Karabakh.

Khojaly is the historical place and memorials of ancient history have still remained here. The memorials of Khojaly -Kedabek culture of XIV-VII centuries B.C. are near Khojaly village. The funeral memorials - the stone boxes, barrows and necropolis of the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age, as well as architectural memorials - round crypt (1356-1357) and mausoleum (XIV century) were found here. The various stone, bronze, bone adornment, the ceramics household goods were found during the archeological excavations. The name of the Assyrian king Adadnerari (807-788 cc. B.C.) was written on one of the beads found in Khojaly.

The population ranched and done with the wine-growing, beekeeping and grain farming. There were the textile factories, 2 secondary schools and 2 partial secondary schools in the city.

In connection with the events of last years 54 Turks-Meskhets families - refugees from Fergana (Uzbekistan), as well as Azerbaijanis expatriated from Armenia have taken refuge in this city. Because of that the construction of branches of big industrial enterprises of Azerbaijan, residential buildings and other sites were developed.

Later the Armenian side admitted that one of the first goals of Armenian armed forces was the liquidation of Khojaly base to open the corridor connected Askeran village and Stepanakert across the city and unblocking of the only airport, which was under control of the Azerbaijanis.

Pay attention to the phrase "the liquidation of Khojaly base". These words, which are also heard today, disclose motives of mass extirpation of children and women, motives of bloody massacre implemented by Armenians.

Chronicle of tragedy

Khojaly was under blockade since October, 1991. On October, 30 the ground traffic was cut off and helicopter was the only way of transportation. The last civilian helicopter arrived in Khojaly on January, 28 and after civilian helicopter was brought down over Shusha city, as a result of which 40 people died, the helicopter traffic also stopped its functioning. Beginning from January 2 there was no electricity in the city. The city lived due to the courage of population and heroism of his defenders. Defense of the city was organized by local guard forces, militia and fighters of National Army armed mainly by submachine guns.

From the second part of February Khojaly was encircled by Armenian armed forces and subjected to daily artillery and hard military equipment firing, attack attempts of the Armenian side.

Preparation for Khojaly attack began in the evening of February, 25 when the military equipment of regiment No 366 began to take positions around the city. The assault of the city began with the 2 hours firing by tanks, armored cars and guns with the missile "Alazan". Khojaly was blocked from three sides and the people tried to escape in Askeran direction. But very soon they understood that it was the ominous trap. Near Nakhchivanik village the Armenian armed forces opened the fire on the unarmed people. Just here, in Askeran-Nakhchivanik shallow gully many of the children and women, the elderly, frostbitten and weaken in the snow of forests and mountain passes became the victims of the brutality of Armenian armed forces.

These events took place when Foreign Minister of Islamic Republic of Iran Ali Akbar Vilayati visited the region with mediatory mission. On February, 25 he met with leadership of Azerbaijan in Baku and on February, 27 he planned to go to the Karabakh, and then to Armenia. In connection with that according to agreement of both parts three days cease fire was declared from February, 27 till March, 1, but it was also ignored by the Armenian side. It was also happened on February, 12 when the mission of Council of Security and Cooperation in Europe arrived in Karabakh with the aim to acquaint and analyse the situation in the conflict zone and possibilities of its settlement, and then it planned to go to Yerevan and Baku. Exactly on February, 12 Armenian extremists carried out capture of Malibeyli and Gushchular villages of Shusha district, as a result of which the villages were completely destroyed and burnt. Only in Malibeyli about 50 people were killed, wounded and taken as hostages.

Those days Azerbaijani forces couldn't burst through to help the population of Khojaly, and there was also no ability to take away the dead bodies. At the same time special groups of Armenians in white camouflage cloaks using helicopters searched the people in the forests, groups of people who came out the forest were shot or taken as hostages and subjected to tortures.

On February 28 the group of local journalists could reach the place of massacre of Azerbaijanis by two helicopters. Awful sight shocked all - the field was covered by dead bodies. Despite the convoy of the second helicopter they could take only 4 dead bodies because of firing of the helicopters by Armenian militants. On March, 1 when the group of the foreign and local journalists could come to this place, the sight that they saw was more terrible. The dead bodies were mutilated. Many of them had the bullet wounds to head and this showed that the wounded people were finished. After medical checkup of dead bodies it was determined that they were scalped, their ears and other organs were cut off, the eyes were put out, their extremities were chopped off, they have numerous of gun wounds, many of them pressed by hard equipment.

Those days foreign newspapers wrote:

"Crual L'Eveneman" magazine (Paris), March 25, 1992: "The Armenians attacked Khojaly district. The whole world became the witness of the disfigured dead bodies. Azeris speak about thousand killed people".

"Sunday Times" newspaper (London), March 1, 1992: "Armenian soldiers annihilated the hundred families".

"Financial Times" newspaper (London), March 9, 1992: "…Armenains shot down the column of refugees, fled to Aghdam. The Azerbaijani side counted up about 1200 dead bodies…

… The cameraman from Lebanon confirmed that the rich dashnak community of his country send the weapon and people to Karabakh".

"Times" newspaper (London), March 4, 1992: … "Many people were mutilated, and it was remained only the head of one little girl"

"Izvestiya" newspaper (Moscow), March 4, 1992: "…Camcoder showed the kids with the cut off ears. One old woman was cut off the half of her face. The men were scalped…"

"Financial Times", March 14, 1992: "General Polyakov said 103 Armenian servicemen from regiment No 366 stayed in Nagorno-Karabakh".

"Le Monde" newspaper (Paris), March 14, 1992: "… The foreign journalists in Aghdam saw the women and three scalped children with the pulled off nails among the killed people. This is not "Azerbaijani propaganda", but reality"

"Izvestiya" newspaper, March 13, 1992:

"Major Leonid Kravets: "I saw about hundred dead bodies on the hill. One little boy was without head. Everywhere were the dead bodies of women, children, elders killed with the particular brutality".

"Valer actuel" magazine (Paris), March 14, 1992: "…On this "autonomous region" Armenian armed forces together with the people who are natives of Near East have the most modern military equipment, including the helicopters. ASALA has military bases and ammunition depots in Syria and Lebanon. Armenians annihilated Azerbaijanis of Karabakh, implemented bloody massacre in more than 100 Moslem villages".

Journalist of British TV company "Funt man news" R. Patrick who visited the place of tragedy: "Crime in Khojaly can not be justified in public opinion".

From the report of "Memorial" Human Rights Watch Center

"Khojaly

…Since autumn of 1991 Khojaly has been practically blocked by Armenian armed formations and after withdrawal of internal troops from Nagorno-Karabakh, full blockade of Khojaly was imposed. Beginning from January, 1992 electrical energy transfer to Khojaly was stopped. Part of inhabitants left blocked city, however, despite insistent requests of head of executive power of Khojaly city Elman Mammadov, total evacuation of peaceful population was not organized.

On February, 25 Armenian armed formations began assault of Khojaly.

Participants of assault

…Units of Artsakh National Liberation Army participated in the assault using armored equipment - armored troop-carriers, combat infantry cars and tanks.

Course of assault

Artillery firing of Khojaly began about 11 p.m. on February 25. Barracks located in housing estate and outposts were destroyed first of all. Entering of infantry units into the city took place from 1 a.m. till 4 a.m. in the morning on February 26.

…The last resistance was broken by 7 a.m. in the morning.

…As a result of firing of the city unknown number of peaceful inhabitants was killed on the territory of Khojaly during the assault.

The "free corridor" for population leaving

…60 people fled from Khojaly during the city assault were questioned by "Memorial" observers in Aghdam and Baku. Only one man of all questioned people said that he knew about existence of "free corridor".

…These refugees proceeded along the "free corridor" situated on the territory adjoined to Aghdam district of Azerbaijan were fired, that resulted in death of many people.

Fate of the inhabitants who stayed in the city

After the occupation of the city by Armenian armed formations about 300 peaceful inhabitants including 86 Turks-Meskhets were in the city.

… According to information received from both sides over 700 captive inhabitants of Khojaly took as hostages in the city and on the way to Aghdam were passed to Azerbaijani side by March 23, 1992. Among them were mainly women and children.

Fate of property of Khojaly inhabitants

Inhabitants of Khojaly who could fled had no possibility to take with them even the most necessary part of their property. The inhabitants who were taken as captives by members of Armenian armed formations also had no possibility to take the part of their property.

Observers from "Memorial" Human Rights Watch Center became witnesses of active unlimited marauding in the occupied city. The property left by Khojaly inhabitants got out from the city by inhabitants of Khankendi (Stepanakert) and neighbouring settlements. The names of new owners were written on the gates of the most of houses.

Estimation of findings

Mass violence against peaceful population of Khojaly city took place during implementation the of military operation on the occupation of the city.

…The majority of Khojaly inhabitants were not informed about existence of the "free corridor".

…Mass murders of peaceful inhabitants in the zone of the "free corridor" and adjacent territory can not be justified by any circumstances.

…Servicemen of infantry guards regiment No 366 belonged to Commonwealth of Independent States troops have participated in Khojaly assault.

…"Memorial" Human Rights Watch Center establishes that actions of Armenian armed forces of Nagorno-Karabakh towards Khojaly peaceful inhabitants during the assault of Khojaly city roughly violate Geneva conventions as well as the following articles of Human Rights Declaration (adopted by UN General Assembly on December 10, 1948):

Article 2, declaring that "every person must have all rights and all freedoms, declared by this declaration without any distinction of…language, religion, national…origin, … or any other position";

Article 3, admitting rights of every person to life, freedom and personal immunity;

Article 5, forbidding brutal, inhuman or humiliate treatment of person;

Article 9, forbidding arbitrary arrests, detention or expatriation;

Article 17, declaring right of every person to have property and forbidding to deprive arbitrary the person of his property.

Actions of armed formations roughly violated Declaration on protection of women and children in emergency and during armed conflicts (declared by UN General Assembly on December 14, 1974)".

Regiment No 366

It is necessary to note the part in Khojaly tragedy of infantry guards regiment No 366 billeted in Khankendi.

This regiment repeatedly engaged in firing of Azerbaijani villages, Shusha and Khojaly cities. Evidence of deserters of this regiment points to these facts and allows us to imagine moral picture and mutual relations among the personnel of the regiment. Clear evidence of engaging of regiment No 366 in Khojaly events is rash withdrawal of this regiment from Khankendi that points to intention to conceal vestiges of this tragedy.

Moral degradation of the officers of regiment No 366 reached such a level that infantry guards regiment failed to implement itself withdrawal of troops allegedly because of interference of local residents. Forces of landing division located in Ganja city was involved in implementation of this operation. However, before commandos arrived, 103 people of personnel of the regiment, who were mainly Armenians clearly admitting their guilty in the outrage refused to obey the order and remained in Karabakh. According to criminal agreement of the high command of the regiment and because of inactivity of other higher commanders who were responsible for troops withdrawal, part of arms of regiment including armored equipment was transferred to Armenians, factually, to commit the further crimes, to continue separatist actions against Azerbaijan. This is clear fact of participation of the regiment No 366 in implementation of Khojaly tragedy!

They are charged…

Armenian armed formations and personnel of infantry guards regiment No 366 participated in firing of the Azerbaijani settlements are the main culprits of vandalism acts implemented in Khojaly city.

Actions of Armenians and their accomplices participated in Khojaly tragedy are rough violation of human rights, cynical neglect of international legal acts - Geneva convention, Universal declaration of human rights, International pact on civil and political rights, International pact on economic, social and cultural rights, Declaration on child rights, Declaration on protection of women and children in emergency and during armed conflicts and other facts of international law.

Political and military leadership of Azerbaijan also is guilty for this tragedy. Ayaz Mutallibov, president and commander-in-chief of Armed Forces of Azerbaijan being guarantor of territorial integrity, security of the country and its citizens, have not taken sufficient measures to prevent tragic events in Karabakh including Khojaly events. As top official of the republic he didn't provide protection of constitutional order, territorial integrity of the republic, rights and freedoms of citizens. Even after the tragedy, leadership of the republic frightened of reaction of the people was afraid to inform bitter truth and concealed information about the scale of massacre implemented by Armenian armed formations.

The history will not forget

Milli Majlis (Parliament) of Azerbaijan declared February 26 as the "Day of Khojaly genocide". Every year at 5 p.m. on February 26 people of Azerbaijan honors memory of Khojaly victims in a minute of silence.

Khojaly inhabitants became refugees and took temporary refuge in 48 districts in Azerbaijan are waiting fair solving of Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, end of aggression of Armenia against Azerbaijan, restoration of territorial integrity of the republic. They appeal to the people of the world, states and international organizations to protect the truth and justice, condemn facts of terrorism, ethnic cleaning implemented in Khojaly.

Culprits of Khojaly tragedy, its organizers and executors must get deserved punishment. There is no and can not be crime without punishment. XX century witnessed many bloody pages which are the history of genocide and ethnic cleaning. Khojaly is one of the most terrible tragedies among them. Everybody implicated in this terrible crime now has responsibility just before its conscience, but the day will come and they will answer for all before court of history.

History remembers everything.

March, 31 - the day of genocide of azerbaijanis

In 1998 the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan issued the Decree on declaring of March, 31 as the day of genocide of Azerbaijanis. This decree is demonstration of the national memory about the tragic events in the history of Azerbaijan and Azerbaijani people for the past century. The outrageous facts of mass killings, repression, expatriation of the Azerbaijanis from their native places are one of the tragic pages of the world history of XX century. Clear sign of Armenian nationalism that is delirious about creation of "Great Armenia" and use any ways for achievement of this goal is shown in this tragic history of the Azerbaijani nation.

Historic Information

Azerbaijan is one of the most ancient centers of civilization, the country with rich history. Discovery of one of the earliest sites of man in Azikh cave on the territory of Azerbaijan and the number of sites of Stone Age is the striking example of it.

The development of the statehood on the territory of Azerbaijan has great history that includes creation of Manney kingdom (IX century B.C.), formation of Midi State (VI century B.C.), development of Atropathena and Albania states (III - V A.D.), dissemination of Christianity and emergence of Albanian alphabet at the beginning of V century, conquest by Arabs and inclusion in Arabian Caliphate, spreading of Islam (beginning of VIII century), creation and development Gara Goyunlu, Ag Goyunlu, Sefevids states. In XVIII century influence of the number of states competed for Azerbaijan and pursued the policy "divide and rule" led to the creation of the number of independent and partially independent state formations - khanates. Baku, Karabakh, Guba, Shamakhi, Sheki, Irevan, Nakhchivan, Lenkoran khanates were created on the territory of Azerbaijan. At the end of XVIII and beginning of XIX centuries growing differences between Iran, Turkey and Russia and wars for Azerbaijan largely affected on the fate of the Azerbaijani people.

After signing of Nishtadt peace treaty with Swedes in 1721 Russian tsar Peter I turned his imperial aspirations to Caucasus and Caspian territories that led to the capture of Baku city in 1723. In connection with dissatisfaction and resistance from the local population that was mainly Moslem Peter I considered "location of Armenians and Christians in Gilan, Mazandaran, Baku and Derbend at any price" as necessary for implementation his intentions. And this policy laid by Peter I was continued by other Russian rulers. In 1768 Catherine II issued the Decree on her protection of Armenians. In 1802 tsar Alexander I wrote to N.D. Sisianov: "At any price the Armenians should be used… in either of khanates in Azerbaijan". The Armenians being the tool for realization of this policy used advantageously imperial intentions of Russia to promote the ideas of creation of their state that they didn't have in XIV-XIX centuries.

The bloody history of mass repression

Gulistan (12 October, 1813) and Turkmenchay (10 February, 1828) treaties concluded correspondingly at the ends of two wars between Russia and Iran (the first one was in 1804-1813 and the second one - in 1826-1828) played their tragic role in the history of the Azerbaijani people and led to the division of Azerbaijan: the northern part of Azerbaijan was conquered by Russia, the southern part was brought under the rule of Iran.

Shortly after concluding of Turkmenchay treaty by the Decree of March, 21 1828 Nicholas I, the Russian emperor, created "Armenian oblast (district)" on the territory of Irevan and Nakhchivan khanates that included also Irevan city where 7331 Azerbaijanis and 2369 Armenians lived.

After that, according to the clause XV in Turkmenchay treaty mass migration of Armenians from Iran into Irevan, Karabakh and Nakhchivan - the lands populated by Azerbaijanis was implemented that later caused the expatriation of them from their home lands. The similar acts are implemented after completion of the wars with Turkey (in 1828-1829, 1877-1878). According to historic sources 40.000 Armenians in Iran and 84.600 Armenians in Turkey were transmigrated into Caucasus in 1829-1830 and they were placed in Nakhchivan, Karabakh and Irevan. Meanwhile, during hostilities hundreds villages populated by Azerbaijanis were destroyed, thousands people were killed, and the remaining population were forced to leave the home places.

At the second part of XIX century Armenians began to create their organizational structures to realize their nationalistic idea about creation of "Great Armenia" by means of capture of some territories in Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan. It is important to note that parties "Gnchag" (1887, Geneva), "Dashnaktsyutyun" (1890, Tiflis), organization "Union of Armenian patriots" (1895, New-York) were created, mainly abroad.

Despite all these attempts, at the end of XIX century Irevan province took third place after Baku and Elizavetpol (Ganja) provinces in quantity of Azerbaijanis lived there. According to the census of population took place in Russian empire 313178 Azerbaijanis lived in Irevan province in 1897. The subsequent events of the beginning of XX century showed that such a situation was a cause of continuation of the tragedies in the history of the Azerbaijani people.

1905-1907. The Armenians made use of revolutionary processes in Russia in 1905-1907 implemented the planned acts of national massacre, mass expulsion of Azerbaijanis from Baku, Shusha, Zangezur, Irevan, Nakhchivan, Ordubad, Echmiadzin, Javanshir and Gazakh. In 1905-1906 200 Azerbaijani villages were destroyed in Irevan and Ganja provinces and 75 villages - in Shusha, Jabrail, Zangezur districts.

Unfortunately, historic sources has a few documents about events of that period, however they described in the books of M.S.Ordubadi "Bloody years" and M.M.Navvab "Armenian-Moslem war in 1905-1906" prepared on the basis of mass media materials of that period, witnesses of victims and eye-witnesses of that events.

1918-1920. After events of 1905-1907 mass repression against Azerbaijanis were continued in concealed form that testifies statistical materials. These materials for 1916 show that number of population increased by 40 times (from 14.300 to 570.000 people) in 5 districts in Irevan province in 1916 in compare with 1831, but at the same time increasing of total number of Azerbaijanis was only 4.6 times (achieved 246.600 people). Another example: if in 1886-1897 absolute increasing of the population was 40.000 people, in 1905-1916 this figure was equal 1700 though in 1905 the population was 61.000 people more than in 1886. These figures show nationalist policy pursued by Armenian nationalists during rule of tsarist Russia and testify realization of the plan on expatriation of Azerbaijanis and creation of "Armenia without Turks" as Armenians call Azerbaijanis.

Used the situation in Russia after World War I, February and October revolutions in 1917 Armenians began to realize their plans under the banner of Bolshevism. Since March, 1918 Baku commune started to implement criminal plan with aim to liquidate Azerbaijanis in Baku province under the slogan of fight against counterrevolutionary elements. The crimes committed by Armenians those days remained in the memory of Azerbaijani people forever. Only because of their national belonging thousands peaceful Azerbaijanis were killed. Armenians burnt houses and live people. They destroyed national architectural values, schools, hospitals, mosques and other constructions, the most part of Baku was in ruins. Genocide of Azerbaijanis implemented with particular brutality in Baku, Shemakha, Guba distircts, in Karabakh, Zangezur, Nakhchivan, Lenkoran and other districts of Azerbaijan. Peaceful population was killed in mass order, villages were burnt, monuments of national culture were destroyed on those lands.

In March-April, 1918 Armenians killed more than 50 thousand Azerbaijanis, plundered their houses, drove tens thousands people out of their homes in Baku, Shemakha, Guba, Mugan, Lenkoran. Only in Baku about 30 thousand Azerbaijanis were killed with particular brutality, 58 villages were destroyed, about 7 thousand people were killed including 1653 women and 965 children in Shemakha district. 122 Moslem villages were destroyed in Guba district, more than 150 Azerbaijani villages were destroyed barbarously in upper part of Karabakh, 115 villages - in Zangezur district, terrible massacre were implemented against population without any distinction in sex and age.

211 Azerbaijani villages were destroyed, burnt and plundered in Irevan province, 92 - in Kars oblast. One of the numerous appeals of Azerbaijanis in Irevan says that in this historic city of Azerbaijanis and around it 88 villages were destroyed, 1920 houses were burnt, 131.970 people were killed for the short time (daily "Ashkhadavor" (Worker), N 231, November, 2 1919).

Creation of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) on May, 28 1918 also was accompanied with loss of the part of the territory of Azerbaijan that is testified by letter of the chairman of the Ministers' Council F.Kh.Khoyski to Foreign Minister M.G.Gadjinski: "We finished all disputes with Armenians, they will receive ultimatum and end the war. We'll give them Irevan".

After creation of three sovereign republics in Transcaucasia due to actions of allies territory of Armenia achieved 17.500 square miles with population 1.510.000 people (795.000 Armenians, 575.000 Moslems, 140.000 - representatives of other nations). Dashnaks ignoring discussion of the issue about dispute territories and determination of the borders between the states in the international organizations and possessed by nationalistic ideas of creation of the "Great Armenia" at the expense of Azerbaijani and Georgian territories claimed to the territory of Akhalkaki and Borchali which were the part of Georgia, as well as Karabakh, Nakhchivan and southern part of Elizavetpol province which were the part of Azerbaijan.

Attempts to join these territories led to the war with Georgia (December, 1918) and long bloody fight with Azerbaijan as a result of which the population reduced by 10-30% in the dispute districts and number of settlements were razed to the ground. In 1918-1920 565.000 Azerbaijanis from total 575.000 Azerbaijanis lived on the territory of present Armenia were killed and expatriated. These facts are confirmed by Armenian sources, too: "By 1920 after Dashnaks, Turkic (Azerbaijani) population was a little more than 10.000 people in Soviet Armenia. In 1922 after returning 60.000 Azerbaijani refugees the number of Azerbaijanis amounted to 72.596 people here". (Z.Korkodian "Population of Soviet Armenia. 1831-1931").

At the beginning of April, 1920 during Tiflis conference on joint defense against threat of sovetization with participation of the representatives of Transcaucasian republics the Armenians claimed that they would never content just with territory of Irevan province and therefore they refused to cooperate. So, actions of the Armenians in Karabakh, Zangezur and Gazakh in the spring of 1920, in Shusha on March, 22 - at the day of Novruz holiday (Holiday of Spring) of Azerbaijanis, and later in Askeran, Stepanakert and Zangezur may consider as conspiracy between Yerevan and Moscow against Azerbaijan and Azerbaijanis to overthrow national government and establish Soviet rule.

Such a policy of Armenians yielded its results. N. Narimanov head of Soviet Azerbaijan yielded to pressure from Moscow forced to issue Declaration on December, 1 1920 according to which the territories of "Zangezur and Nakhchivan districts…" with total area 9800 square kilometers "…declared…the part of Soviet Armenia".

As it is clear from these facts Armenians used all available means and methods to achieve their nationalistic goals violating generally accepted norms of international law.

Deportation of 1948-1953. During Soviet rule Armenians continued their traditional policy of expatriation of Azerbaijanis from the territory of the Armenian SSR and expansion of its territory at the expense of its neighbors. For implementation of such a policy Armenians lived in Armenia and abroad it coordinated their actions that testifies the existence of global strategy for achievement of "Great Armenia" idea.

Armenian diaspora made use of holding of Tehran conference (1943) appealed to USSR Foreign Minister V. Molotov to allow Armenians lived in Iran to transmigrate into USSR. Consent of Joseph Stalin in this question laid basis for mass deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia in 1948-1953.

In 1945 the leadership of Armenia raised a question about joining of Karabakh and substantiated it by economic links of Karabakh with Armenia but at that period these attempts failed. Then another tactics was chosen.

Short after war of 1941-1945 transmigration of Armenians from abroad to Armenia was begun. In 1946 50.900 people were transmigrated from Syria, Greece, Lebanon, Iran, Bulgaria and Romania, and in 1947 35.400 people - from Palestine, Syria, France, USA, Greece, Egypt, Iraq and Lebanon. In 1947 Armenian CC CP Secretary G. Arutyunov appealed to Moscow with complaint about difficulties in settlement of Armenian migrants and proposed the cynical idea to transmigrate Azerbaijanis lived in Armenia to cotton-growing regions of Azerbaijan allegedly with aim to provide labor productivity.

This idea supported by I. Stalin was realized by two Decrees of USSR Ministers' Council. First of them "On transmigration of collective farmers and other Azerbaijanis from the Armenian SSR to Kura-Araks lowland of the Azerbaijani SSR" of December, 1947 decrees about free-well transmigration of 100.000 Azerbaijanis into lower districts of Azerbaijan in 1948-1950 without any mention of reasons, mechanism and real circumstances of transmigration.

According to this Decree 10.000 people were to be transmigrated to Azerbaijan in 1948, 40.000 people - in 1949, 50.000 - in 1950.

The second Decree "On measures for transmigration of collective farmers and other Azerbaijani population from the Armenian SSR into Kura-Araks lowland in the Azerbaijani SSR" of March, 10 1948 was supplement to the first one and included technical and organizational measures for transmigration realization.

According to the facts, 2357 families (11046 people) were transmigrated to Azerbaijan in 1948, 2368 families (10595 people) - in 1949, 14361 people - in 1950. Only 4878 families from 8110 transmigrated in 1948-1950 were provided by dwellings. In general more than 100.000 Azerbaijanis were transmigrated during 1948-1952. Transmigrated people mainly lived in mountainous area and did not provide by dwellings suffered from hot climatic conditions in lower area and numerous victims were among them at that period. Even in such circumstances repeated appeals of transmigrated Azerbaijanis and the leadership of Azerbaijan to Moscow about permission to settle them in mountainous area including Karabakh were rejected by central leadership. It is one more side of free-well transmigration for the sake of cotton-growing development - inhumanity to the fates of people and thousand victims.

Along with it only 10.000 Armenians from France, USA, Egypt, Bulgaria, Romania, Syria, and Lebanon were transmigrated to Armenia in 1948. This fact indicates that Armenia achieved the decree on transmigration of Azerbaijanis from Armenia was not interested in future transmigration of Armenians from abroad. More than 476 villages remained unused as was noted at the session of Armenia CC KP in 1975 ("Communist" daily, January, 20 1975, Yerevan).

Even Armenian nationalists declared in 1990 "Vacant lands and residential areas vacated in connection with transmigration of Azerbaijanis were not used for settlement of Armenians arrived from abroad" ("The voice of Armenia" daily, November, 11 1990).

It can be made the only conclusion from all aforesaid that the transmigration of Azerbaijanis from Armenia has aimed neither distribution of foreign Armenians nor development of cotton-growing in Azerbaijan. It was the policy of building of mononational state, the old idea and dream of Dashnaks. The death of Josef Stalin has stopped the processes of transmigration and Azerbaijanis who have not find shelter and could not endure those conditions were forced to return to their homeland despite discriminations and persecutions against them. It caused the new wave of Armenian dissatisfaction - moral terror against Azerbaijanis. Close of the educational institutions, abolition of studying in Azerbaijani language, replacement of Azeri leaders by Armenian personnel, ignoring of common and economic needs of Azeri villages, expanding of anti-Azerbaijani company, especially became apparent by the realization of 50th year anniversary of the genocide of Armenians in 1965 were the links of Dashnak policy.

1990-s of XX century. The processes of reorganization and publicity in USSR have caused the new wave of anti-Azerbaijani sentiments and territorial claims. Armenian nationalists have begun expatriation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia and seizure of Karabakh from Azerbaijan using substantiation of allegedly economical links of Karabakh with Armenia.

Beginning from 1988 mass threats, beatings and murders, massacres of villages, bloody events in Gukark where 70 people were killed including 21 women and 6 children and in Vardanis district where 40 people were killed forced 250.000 Azerbaijanis to leave their native places in Yerevan, Masis, Kalinino, Kadjaran, Kafan, Kirovokan, Goris, Sisian, Amasiya, Alaverdi. The history of 1905-1920 repeated again - women and children, elderly people going through snow mountain ridges, becoming frozen and perishing were seeking salvation in Azerbaijan. The history of 1948-1953 repeated again - by the order of the central authorities the refugees have not been allowed to settle in Karabakh so they took refuge in the tents.

After expatriation of the residents from the last Azerbaijani village Nuvedy in Armenia in August, 8 1991 which had been annexed to Armenia by the decree of Transcaucasian federation in February, 18 1929, Armenia turned into the mononational republic and the Dashnak idea about "Armenia without Azerbaijanis" was realized.

The aggression of Armenia against Azerbaijan after 1988 has turned into ruins occupied cities and districts of Azerbaijan which are the 20 percent of republic's territory, forced 1.000.000 people to become refugees, 10.000 people were killed, dozen of thousands were crippled.

The genocide in Khojali in February, 1992 is the another evidence of brutality and cruelty of Armenian nationalism and will be kept in the memory of humanity for a long time. It should not be also forgotten the history of Black January of 1990 when the forces of Soviet army inflicted unexampled reprisals against peaceful residents of Baku. According to proofs of eye-witnesses there were a lot of Armenian reservists among soldiers.

Here are the results of nationalistic policy carrying out by Dashnaks during 19-20th centuries. It is necessary to note that separative actions against Azerbaijan are continuing, so Armenia is urging to seize Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic from Azerbaijan. They also make attempts to obtain the recognition of "the genocide of Armenians" by the world community, forgetting that the nation who went through genocide has not moral right for similar actions against other nations. Probably their morbid imagination presumes them to interpret international legal regulations peculiarly playing the role of martyr and torture simultaneously. It all occurs before the eyes of civilized humanity, achieved the high level of cultural and economical development and standing at the 21th century.

Political - legal Assessment

For the first time the March events of 1918 were at the center of attention after the declaration of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. On June 15, 1918 the Council of Ministers accepted the resolution about establishing of special investigation committee.

The committee has investigated the March tragedy, first of all exploring the brutalities of Armenians in Shemakha and grave crimes in Irevan province. It was established the special structure attached to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in order to inform the world public about true currency of events. ADR commemorated 31st of March as the day of nation-wide sorrow in 1919 and 1920. In essence it was the attempt to give the political assessment to the policy of genocide against Azerbaijanis and occupation of our territories continuing during more than epoch. But the collapse of ADR has not let to bring to an end this task.

The Republic of Azerbaijan got independence after the collapse of Soviet Union has perceived the necessity of political assessment of the events of genocide and to bring to the logical end the decisions which ADR had not time to finish.

The Decree of the President of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev of the March, 26 1998 issued on the eve of 80th anniversary of tragic March events of 1918 became the expression of political assessment by the Azerbaijani side to the actions of Armenian nationalists. That Decree has become a program document for forming of present and future generations' strong national memory about genocide inflicted against Azeri nation in 20th century, the attaining of the political and legal assessment of those tragedies in the whole world, the eliminating of heavy consequences and for retraining from repetition in future.

In 1998 year the parliament of the Republic - Milli Majlis applied with a statement to United Nations, inter-Parliamentary Council, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Community of Independent States and other international organizations, parliaments and governments of world's states to make every effort to struggle against events like genocide against Azerbaijanis in the whole world.

"The Day of Genocide of Azerbaijanis" commemorated by Azerbaijanis every year serves these aims and it is an attempt to draw attention of world community to the facts of shovinizm, separatism continuing to the present. It is important to remember that we are all responsible for the peaceful future of civilization.

Decree of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the genocide of the Azerbaijani people

The achievement of independence by the Republic of Azerbaijan has made it possible to reconstruct an objective picture of the historical past of our people. Truths that were kept secret for long years and that were suppressed and banned are coming to light, and the reality behind facts that were once falsified is being revealed. The genocide that was repeatedly carried out against the Azerbaijani people, and which for a long time was not the subject of a proper political or legal assessment, is one of those unrevealed pages of history.

With the signing in 1813 and 1828 of the Gulistan and Turkmenchay Treaties, there began the dismemberment of the Azerbaijani nation and the division of our historical lands. The occupation of its lands marked the continuation of the national tragedy of the divided Azerbaijani people. As a result of this policy, within a very short time there took place a massive resettlement of Armenians on Azerbaijani lands. A policy of genocide was to become an essential element in that occupation of Azerbaijani territory.

Despite the fact that the Armenians who had settled on the territories of the Irevan, Nakhchivan and Karabakh khanates constituted a minority in comparison with the Azerbaijanis living there, they succeeded, under the protection of their patrons, in creating an administrative territorial unit in the form of the so-called "Armenian Region". In essence, as a result of this artificial territorial division the preconditions were created for a policy of expelling Azerbaijanis from their own lands and for destroying the Azerbaijani population. The propagandizing of the notion of a "Greater Armenia" began. In order to "justify" the efforts to establish this fictitious state on Azerbaijan land, large-scale programs were carried out aimed at inventing a false history of the Armenian people. The distortion of the history of Azerbaijan and of the Caucasus as a whole became an important component of those programs.

From 1905 to 1907, inspired by illusions of creating a "Greater Armenia", the Armenian invaders, without taking the trouble to hide their intentions, carried out a number of large-scale and bloody actions against the Azerbaijanis. The atrocities perpetrated by the Armenians, which began in Baku, were ultimately extended to cover all of Azerbaijan and the Azerbaijani villages located on the territory of present-day Armenia. Hundreds of communities were destroyed and wiped from the face of the earth, and thousands of Azerbaijanis were barbarously murdered. The organizers of these events, by preventing the disclosure of the truth of what had taken place and by blocking its proper political and legal examination, cultivated a negative image of the Azerbaijanis as a screen for their adventurist territorial claims.

Capitalizing for their own purposes on the situation that arose after the First World War and following the uprisings in Russia in February and October of 1917, the Armenians began to seek to turn their plans into reality under the banner of Bolshevism. Beginning in March 1918, the Baku commune, under the slogan of combating counter-revolutionary elements, set about putting into practice a criminal plan whose objective was the liquidation of the Azerbaijanis throughout Baku Province. The crimes committed by the Armenians in those days have remained indelibly imprinted on the memory of the Azerbaijani people. Thousands of peaceful Azerbaijanis were killed solely because of their national affiliation. The Armenians set fire to their houses, burning alive the men and women inside them. They destroyed national architectural treasures, schools, hospitals, mosques and other buildings, laying waste to a large part of Baku. The genocide of the Azerbaijanis was pursued with particular ferocity in the districts of Baku, Shamakhy and Guba and in Karabakh, Zangezur, Nakhchivan, Lenkoran and other regions of Azerbaijan. On these lands the peaceful population was annihilated en masse, with villages put to the torch and national monuments of culture ruined and destroyed.

The March events of 1918 became the focus of attention following the proclamation of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. On 15 July 1918 the Council of Ministers, for the purpose of investigating this tragedy, adopted a decree establishing an extraordinary commission of inquiry. The Commission investigated the March tragedy, focusing primarily on the atrocities committed by the Armenians in Shamakhy as well as on their other heinous crimes in Irevan Province. A special service was established within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the purpose of informing the public at large about what had actually happened. In 1919 and 1920 the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic observed 31 March as a national day of mourning. In essence, this was the first attempt at a political assessment of the policy of genocide perpetrated against the Azerbaijanis and of the more than one-century-old occupation of our lands. However, the demise of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic made it impossible to complete this work.

In 1920 the Armenians, taking advantage of the sovietization of the Transcaucasus for their own vile purposes, proclaimed Zangezur and a number of lands within Azerbaijan as territory of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. Subsequently, with a view to extending further the policy of deporting Azerbaijanis from those territories, new means began to be used. As one of them, the Armenians pushed through the adoption of a special decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of 23 December 1947 "On the resettlement of collective-farm workers and other members of the Azerbaijani population from the Armenian SSR to the Kura-Araks Lowland of the Azerbaijan SSR" and succeeded in bringing about, as a State-endorsed measure, the deportation en masse of Azerbaijanis from their historical lands during the period from 1948 to 1953.

Beginning in the 1950s, Armenian nationalists, with the help of their patrons, initiated a flagrant campaign of intellectual aggression against the Azerbaijani people. In books, magazines and newspapers periodically circulated in the former Soviet State they argued that the most outstanding works of art of our national culture, our classical heritage and our architectural monuments were all the creation of the Armenian people. This was accompanied by a stepped-up effort to forge worldwide a negative perception of Azerbaijanis. By creating an image of the "unfortunate, hapless Armenian people", those engaged in this effort consciously falsified the events that had taken place in the region at the beginning of the century: the very people who had committed genocide against the Azerbaijanis were portrayed as the victims of genocide.

Our countrymen were subject to persecution and expelled in droves from the city of Irevan, where the majority of the population at the beginning of the century had been Azerbaijani, and from other regions of the Armenian SSR. The Armenians shamelessly flouted the rights of the Azerbaijanis, created obstacles to their receiving education in their native language, and conducted a policy of repression. The historical names of Azerbaijani villages were changed and a process, unprecedented in the history of toponymy, of substituting modern for ancient place names was implemented. With the aim of creating a basis for the education of Armenian youth in a spirit of chauvinism, this imaginary Armenian history was elevated to the level of State policy. Our younger generation, educated in the spirit of the great humanitarian ideals of Azerbaijani literature and culture, found themselves the target of persecution in the form of an extremist Armenian ideology.

As the ideological basis for political and military aggression, a policy of slanderous defamation was directed against the spiritual values, national honor and dignity of the Azerbaijani people. The Armenians used the Soviet press to distort historical facts, thereby misleading public opinion.

The leadership of the Republic of Azerbaijan failed to come up with a timely and proper assessment of the anti-Azerbaijani propaganda campaign which was being waged by the Armenians, using the possibilities afforded by the Soviet regime, and which, beginning in the mid-1980s, became more and more intensive.

Officials in the Republic also failed to deliver a correct political assessment of the expulsion, at the initial stage of the so-called Nagorno-Karabakh conflict that arose in 1988, of hundreds of thousands of Azerbaijanis from their ancestral lands. The Armenians' unconstitutional decree on the inclusion of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region of Azerbaijan within the Armenian SSR, and what amounted in effect to the removal of this region from Azerbaijani authority by means of the Moscow-installed Committee for Special Administration, was greeted by our people with indignation, and they found themselves confronted with the need to undertake serious political action. Despite the fact that the policy of seizing our land was resolutely condemned at meetings held at that time throughout the Republic, the Azerbaijani leadership did not abandon its position of passivity. It was in fact as a result of this failed response that troops were brought into Baku in January 1990 for the purpose of putting down a popular movement that was constantly growing in strength. In the events that followed, hundreds of Azerbaijanis were killed, wounded or maimed, and others were subjected to various forms of physical duress.

In February 1992 the Armenians perpetrated an unheard-of punitive crime against the population of the town of Khojali. This bloody tragedy, which has entered our history as the Khojali Genocide, ended with the annihilation of thousands of Azerbaijanis, with others taken prisoner and the city erased from the face of the earth.

As a result of the adventurist policy unleashed by the Armenian national-separatists in Nagorno-Karabakh, today more than a million of our citizens have been expelled by the Armenian aggressors from their places of birth and have been forced to live in tent settlements. Thousands of our fellow-citizens died or were made invalids at the time of the occupation by Armenian armed forces of 20 per cent of our territory.

All the tragedies that have befallen Azerbaijan in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, accompanied by the seizure of our land, have been different stages of a conscious policy of genocide systematically applied by the Armenians against the Azerbaijani people. In the case of only one of these events - the March massacre of 1918 - has an attempt been made to assess what took place in political terms. The Republic of Azerbaijan regards it as a historical imperative that these events of genocide should be assessed from a political perspective and that the decisions that the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was unable to fully implement should be brought to their logical conclusion.

In commemoration of these tragedies of genocide perpetrated against the Azerbaijani people, I decree:

1. That the date 31 March shall be proclaimed Day of Genocide of the Azerbaijanis;

2. That it shall be recommended to the Milli Majlis (Parliament) of the Republic of Azerbaijan that it should consider holding a special session devoted to the events connected with the genocide of the Azerbaijanis.

Heydar Aliyev
President of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Baku, March 26, 1998

Statement of Milli Majlis (Supreme Assembly) of the Republic of Azerbaijan in connection with the day of genocide of azerbaijanis

Milli Majlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan noting great significance of the Decree "On genocide of Azerbaijanis" of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, His Excellency Mr. Heydar Aliyev as the first official document shed light on these dark pages of our history considers declaration of March, 31 - Day of the genocide of Azerbaijanis that was committed against Azerbaijanis 80 years ago, as political legal and moral action that recalls our national memory and stimulates history truth to be discovered and occupied its fitting place.

Facts of mass massacre - genocide committed against Azerbaijanis with unprecedented brutality after violent division of Azerbaijan were called by their right names in this significant document for the first time in our history, particularly roots of policy of ethnic hostility carried out in all Transcaucasian against Azerbaijani population in 1905-1907, 1918-1920, 1948-1953 and 1988-1993 by Armenian nationalists, nationalist circles and reactionary great powers supported them were disclosed, political assessment was given to ominous policy of anti-Azerbaijani powers which saw the main and real way to implement chimera about "Great Armenia" in destruction, deportation of Azerbaijanis who were natives of these territories along all history, in destruction of their historic and cultural monuments, rename the toponymies.

Transmigration of tens thousands of Armenians into Azerbaijan after concluding of Goulistan and Turkmenchay peace treaties legalized the occupation of Azerbaijan by tsarist Russia as well as gave them broader rights and privileges in comparison with local population on the basis of religious community that led to supplant of Azerbaijani population by Russian-Armenian alliance by all means. This process was intensified after beginning of activity of Armenian nationalist parties Dashnaksyutun and Gnchak and unification of fanatic Armenian mass under their nationalistic slogans. In 1905 after beginning of first revolution in Russia organized armed troops of Armenians became the first initiators in Caucasus such a terrible crime as genocide on ethnic basis. In 1905-1907 they implemented mass massacre of Azerbaijanis in Baku, Tiflis, Erivan, Nakhchivan, Ganja, Karabakh, Zangezur, burnt cities and villages, killed children, women, the elders with unprecedented brutality. Only in Shusha, Javanshir, Jabrail and Zangezur districts 75 Azerbaijani villages were razed to the ground in this period, and in Erivan and Ganja provinces more than 200 settlements were thoroughly destroyed and ravaged. Tens thousands Azerbaijanis who could escape brutality of Armenians were forced to leave their native lands. So, humiliating tradition of refugeeness history of which will soon amount to one century was founded.

Genocide policy committed against Azerbaijani people by Armenians have got broader scale in 1918 when Central government of tsarist Russia was collapsed and in circumstances of arbitrariness and anarchy former empire have lived its last days. The genocide of this period was committed in more organized way and with more brutality and merciless. Only in March - April of 1918 in Baku, Shamakha, Guba, Mugan, Lankaran Armenians killed more than 50 thousands Azerbaijanis, destroyed their homes, drove them out their native lands. Only in Baku 30 thousand of our compatriots were killed with particular merciless, in Shamakha district 58 villages were destroyed, about 7 thousands people were killed including 1653 women and 965 children. 122 Moslem villages were razed to the ground in Guba district, more than 150 Azerbaijani villages were destroyed in upland part of Karabakh, 115 villages - in Zangezur district, cruel violence were implemented against population without distinction in sex and age. 211 Azerbaijani villages were destroyed, burnt and ravaged in Erivan province, 92 - in Kars oblast (region). One of the numerous appeals of the Azerbaijanis of Erivan points that 88 villages were destroyed, 1920 were burnt, 132 thousand people were killed in this historic city. As a result of brutality carried out by Armenian troops, policy of "Armenia without Turks" pursued during period of Dashnaks' rule, number of Azerbaijani population in Erivan district reduced from 375 thousand in 1916 to 70 thousand people in 1922. Apparently, as a result of genocide and wide-ranging ethnic cleanings Armenian nationalists in a short time largely could achieve their object.

Because of impunity of the crimes of genocide and not giving any political and legal assessment to them, Azerbaijanis repeatedly faced with antihuman policy carried out against them in period of Soviet rule, too. The obvious case of this elaborate discreditable policy is fate of Azerbaijanis lived on the territory of the Armenian SSR. As a result of "creeping" deportations as well as forced deportations in 1948-1953 and 1988-1989 about half million Azerbaijanis were expatriated from the Armenian SSR, and all their property was plundered.

Armenian expansion that began since 1988 and aggressive war and ethnic cleaning carried out by Armenians in Nagorny Karabakh increased number of victims of genocide of Azerbaijanis. As a result of it 20 percents of the territory of the Azerbaijani Republic were occupied, 18 thousand people were killed, more than 20 thousand people were wounded, more than 50 thousand people became invalids, more than 4 thousand people were taken as prisoners, hostages and missing, more than 4 industrial and agricultural enterprises, 660 schools and kindergartens, 250 hospitals and medical institutions were destroyed, 724 cities, villages and settlements were plundered, destroyed and burnt. As a result of Khojali tragedy that is the most terrible crime of the century Armenians completely destroyed large inhabited locality, 613 people of peaceful population were brutally killed including 63 infants, 106 women, 487 people became cripples, 1275 inhabitants including elders, children and women were taken as prisoners and subjected to unprecedented tortures, insults and humiliation.

As a result of this only at the XX century more than 2 million Azerbaijanis have felt policy of genocide carried out by Armenian nationalistic circles and their protectors on their own backs. It can be said there is no family in Azerbaijan that has not suffered as a result of Armenian nationalism.

In the name of triumph of truth and justice and with the aim to prevent new crimes of genocide against Azerbaijanis Milli Majlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan states that Azerbaijani state strongly following the path of democracy will use all available means and ways to inform world community about crimes of genocide repeatedly carried out in XIX-XX centuries against Azerbaijanis by Armenian nationalism and its advocates with anti-Azerbaijani orientation.

Milli Majlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan taking into consideration that the crimes of genocide carried out against Azerbaijanis have still not been punished and lack of information about it in international community appeals to UN, Inter-Parliament Union, Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Council of Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States, other international organizations, parliaments and governments of the states of the world with request:

1. To admit the crimes of genocide carried out by Armenian nationalists and their protectors against Azerbaijanis in XIX-XX centuries;

2. To complete the work on creation of efficient international legal mechanisms for providing inevitability of immunity for the crimes of genocide in the near future;

3. With aim to prevent new crimes of genocide against Azerbaijanis, to promote peaceful fair resolution of Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict within the frames of OSCE Minsk Group.

(The statement was adopted at the session of Milli Majlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan on March, 31, 1998)
 

POPULATION

OF AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC

Number of population (at the beginning of the year)

Years
Total number of population, thsd person
of which:
Per cen, of total population
urban
places
rural
places
urban
 
places
rural
places
 2000 
8 032.8
4107.3
3925.5
51.1
48.9
2001
8 114.3
4149.1
3965.2
51.1
48.9
2002
8 191.4
4192.6
3998.8
51.2
48.8
2003
8 269.2
4237.6
4031.6
51.2
48.8
2004
8 349.1
4358.4
3990.7
52.2
47.8
2005
8 447.4
4 423.4
4024.0
52.4
47.6
2006
8 553.1
4502.4
4050.7
52.6
47.4
2007
8666.1
4564.2
4101.9
52.7
47.3
2008
8779.9
4652.2
4127.7
53.0
47.0
2009
8922.4
4739.1
4183.3
53.1
46.9
2010
8997.6
4774.9
4222.7
53.1
46.9
2011
9111.1
4829.5
4281.6
53.0
47.0
2012
9235.1
4888.7
4346.4
52.9
47.1
2013
9 356.5
4966.2
4390.2
53.1
46.9
2014
9 477.1
5045.4
4431.7
53.2
46.8
2015
9 593.0
5098.3
4494.7
53.1
46.9

 

Birth, death and natural increase

Years
Person
Per 1000 population
Births
Deaths
Natural increase
Births
Deaths
Natural increase
 2000 
116 994
46 701
70293
14.7
5.9
8.8
2001
110 356
45 284
65072
13.7
5.6
8.1
2002
110 715
46 522
64193
13.7
5.7
8.0
2003
113 467
49 001
64466
13.9
6.0
7.9
2004
131 609
49 568
82041
15.9
6.0
9.9
2005
141 901
51 962
89939
16.9
6.2
10.7
2006
148 946
52 248
96698
17.5
6.2
11.3
2007
151 963
53 655
98308
17.7
6.2
11.5
2008
152 086
52 710
99376
17.4
6.0
11.4
2009
152 139
52 514
99625
17.2
5.9
11.3
2010
165 643
53 580
112 063
18.5
6.0
12.5
2011
176 072
53 762
122 310
19.4
5.9
13.5
2012
174 469
55 017
119452
19.0
6.0
13.0
2013
172 671
54 383
118 288
18.6
5.8
12.8
2014
170503
55648
114855
18.1
5.9
12.2

 

Distribution of population by age groups (at the beginning of the year)

 
Thsd person
Percent
 
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Total population
8779.9
8897.0
8997.6
9111.1
9235.1
9356.5
9477.1
9 593.0
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
of which:
0-4
624.4
640.9
670.1
712.5
765.2
812.6
832.8
843.0
7.1
7.2
7.4
7.8
8.3
8.7
8.8
8.8
5-9
655.4
648.2
634.8
626.1
623.0
620.7
638.3
646.1
7.5
7.3
7.1
6.9
6.7
6.6
6.8
6.8
10-14
803.6
763.9
725.8
693.8
664.3
653.8
647.5
655.4
9.1
8.6
8.1
7.6
7.2
7.0
6.9
6.9
15-19
937.4
922.5
905.2
875.6
844.4
801.9
762.8
772.1
10.7
10.4
10.1
9.6
9.1
8.6
8.0
8.0
20-24
900.3
925.8
939.2
946.2
944.6
937.2
920.3
931.6
10.2
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.2
10.0
9.7
9.7
25-29
771.1
794.5
819.9
843.2
873.0
898.2
923.6
934.9
8.8
8.9
9.1
9.3
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.7
30-34
635.8
659.4
684.4
712.8
736.5
767.2
791.5
801.2
7.2
7.4
7.6
7.8
8.0
8.2
8.4
8.4
35-39
647.5
634.0
624.9
618.3
626.4
633.5
655.9
663.9
7.4
7.1
6.9
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.9
40-44
664.6
668.9
664.6
663.3
653.1
646.6
629.4
637.1
7.6
7.5
7.4
7.3
7.1
6.9
6.6
6.6
45-49
663.8
678.6
680.1
674.1
670.4
662.0
660.7
668.8
7.6
7.6
7.6
7.4
7.3
7.1
7.0
7.0
50-54
459.6
510.9
555.8
600.9
629.5
653.4
664.4
672.5
5.2
5.8
6.2
6.6
6.8
7.0
7.0
7.0
55-59
305.8
323.8
348.1
372.6
407.2
443.6
492.2
498.2
3.5
3.6
3.9
4.1
4.4
4.7
5.2
5.2
60-64
151.3
180.2
209.7
244.2
266.2
287.6
304.0
307.7
1.7
2.0
2.3
2.7
2.9
3.1
3.2
3.2
65-69
193.8
161.5
138.5
120.7
122.9
136.4
163.4
165.4
2.2
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.7
1.7
70 and above
365.5
383.9
396.5
406.8
408.4
401.8
390.3
395.1
4.2
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.3
4.1
4.1
Number of female to 1000 male by age group
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Total
population
1025
1021
1019
1017
1015
1013
1011
1009
of which:
0-4
875
870
867
863
860
859
860
858
5-9
886
878
874
874
876
875
871
870
10-14
920
913
904
897
888
885
878
877
15-19
984
973
955
938
931
921
913
911
20-24
1028
1020
1018
1013
1000
988
976
974
25-29
1009
1014
1020
1024
1030
1 029
1023
1021
30-34
1033
1021
1012
1008
1005
1 009
1017
1015
35-39
1076
1070
1068
1060
1053
1 038
1026
1024
40-44
1087
1092
1088
1085
1081
1 080
1076
1074
45-49
1058
1067
1080
1092
1098
1 099
1101
1099
50-54
1070
1073
1071
1067
1071
1 078
1084
1082
55-59
1113
1107
1105
1106
1107
1 102
1103
1101
60-64
1177
1182
1173
1167
1161
1 161
1155
1152
65-69
1264
1262
1270
1269
1259
1 251
1260
1256
70 and above
1440
1426
1425
1427
1435
1 450
1455
1453
Marriages and divorces
 
 Years
Number of marriages
 Number of divorces 
Per 1000 population
marriages
divorces
 2000 
39 611
5478
5.0
0.7
2001
41 861
5382
5.2
0.7
2002
41 661
5738
5.1
0.7
2003
56 091
6671
6.8
0.8
2004
62 177
6914
7.5
0.8
2005
71 643
8895
8.5
1.1
2006
79 443
7817
9.4
0.9
2007
81 758
8340
9.5
1.0
2008
79 964
7933
9.2
0.9
2009
78 072
7784
8.8
0.9
2010
79 172
9 061
8.9
1.0
2011
88 145
10 747
9.7
1.2
2012
79 065
11 087
8.6
1.2
2013
86 852
11 730
9.3
1.3 
2014
84912
12088
9.0
1.3 

PHOTOS

from AZERBAIJAN TERRITORIES

MINGECHEVIR

CITY

Mingachevir, sometimes spelled Mingechevir (in azeri: Mingəçevir), is the fourth-biggest city in Azerbaijan. There are about 100,000 people. It is known as the "city of lights" because of its hydroelectric power station on the Kur River.

Mingechevir
Seal
Country : Azerbaijan
Founded : 1948
Area Total : 47 km2 (18 sq mi)
Elevation : 545 m (1,788 ft)
Population (2015): 102070
Density : 2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)
Time zone: AZT (UTC+4)
Area code(s) : +994 024 27
Website : Official website

Download Music about Mingechevir

HISTORY

of MINGECHEVIR

Gold Scythian belt title, Mingachevir (ancient Scythian kingdom), Azerbaijan, 7th century BC.
Despite the fact that Mingecevir is a young town, the territory where the town is located is known as an ancient abode. The history of this abode covers a period from the eneolith era (3000 BC) to the AD 17th century. It was the chairman of the Caucasus archeological committee, A. I. Berje, who first gave information about the archeological monuments of Mingecevir at the second congress of archeologists in St Petersburg in 1871. Although this information was not precise, Berje presented Mingecevir as an ancient settlement.

After this, Mingecevir remained out of archeologists’ attention for many years. Archeological researches resumed in Mingecevir only in mid-1930s as part of the construction of the hydroelectric power station. The researches started under the leadership of Prof. Pakhomov in 1935. These researches revealed two ancient settlements and cemeteries, which were composed of various types of graves. Unfortunately, World War II prevented the research being completed.

The construction of the hydroelectric power station started immediately after the war. This marked a start of systematic and planned research of Mingecevir as an ancient abode. Archeological excavations were carried out from April 1946 to August 1953 by a group of archeologists headed by S. M. Qaziyev in connection with the construction of the Mingecevir hydroelectric power station under a decision by the Supreme Board of the Azerbaijani Academy of Sciences. Over 20,000 historical monuments – graves and tumuli, means of production, things related to daily life, jewelry etc., which reflected historical periods in chronological sequence, were found during the excavations.

Base of a column with Albanian inscription, Caucasian Albania
Most ancient written monuments in Caucasian Albanian alphabet and other archeological finds proved that Mingecevir was a 5,000-year-old abode. The majority of these finds are currently exhibited in the Azerbaijani Historical Museum, while part of them is held at the Mingecevir Historical Museum.

History knows a great deal of facts about ancient Mingecevir. Historical sources indicate that a fierce battle took place between the powerful army of Roman commander Pompey and the army of Albanian governor Oris just on the territory of the current dam on the bank of the River Kur in the 1st century BC. Historical facts also prove that the ancient Silk Road laid via Mingecevir.



Bones of the south elephants B.C 600-400 thousand years (Museum of History Mingachevir)

Renowned Turkish traveler Evliya Çelebi, who lived in the AD 17th century, wrote about Mingecevir and described it as a large settlement on the right bank of the River Kur near the Bozdag Mountain. According to him, several mosques, workshops manufacturing fiber silk and silk cloth, bathhouses etc. were operating in this settlement. Interestingly, the road passing from here used to be called the "road of messenger". The "road of messenger" was connecting lots of camelcade and trade roads to Middle East countries and Azerbaijani towns like Saki, Qabala, Samaxi, Barda, Beylaqan and others.

A great number of people came to Mingechevir from all districts in Azerbaijan in connection with the construction of the Mingechevir hydroelectric power station, and a total of 20,000 people took part in the construction of this power station. About 10,000 German POWs were among those who contributed to the construction of this power station by the end of the 1940s. The most experienced specialists of the country were involved in the construction of this building site as the biggest hydroelectric power station of the then Soviet Union.

Today's Mingechevir, which was built in connection with the hydroelectric power station, was granted a status of town in 1948. The population of the town currently stands at 120,000 people, including 20,000 internally displaced people from Karabakh and the occupied adjacent districts. The area of the town is 139.53 km². Mingechevir is situated 55 meter above sea level on the foothill of the southeast of the Bozdag Mountain chain and on the edge of the Mingechevir reservoir in the Kur-Araz lowland in central Azerbaijan. The town was built in a mild and warm zone and has warm and dry summer, while mild winter. The average annual temperature is 14 - 15 °C, highest temperature 42 °C (July–August) and the lowest temperature (January–February) -10 °C. The average annual rain constitutes 250–300 mm.

Crosses from Migachevir church complex, Caucasian Albania
The town lies on both banks of the River Kur - a 1515 km-long river, which is the biggest and longest one in the South Caucasus. (The river originates from Turkey, runs down Georgia and Azerbaijan and flows to the Caspian Sea.) Mingechevir is situated in 280–300 km west of the capital of the republic, Baku.
Mingechevir has been developing speedily over the last 54 years, since it has been established. Mingechevir, which is currently considered to be the fourth town of the country both for its economic potential and the number of population, is one of the central towns of the republic in terms of energy, industry, science, education and culture. The number of able-bodied people in Mingechevir is 53,000, while the number of people actually involved in labor is 16,000. The number of people engaged in small-sized businesses stands at 4,000 people

CULTURE

of MINGECHEVIR

Mingachevir Sixteen public libraries with 406,677 books in total are operating in the town. The number of subscribers in these libraries stands at 46,282 people. Every book is requested 2.9 times in average annually, and readers took books from libraries 904,395 times last year.

MUSEUMS

The Mingacevir Historical Museum was established in January 1968. The museum has two branches – Martyrs’ Memorial and Independence Museum. The museum has 14,461 exhibits.

GALLERY

The number of exhibits in Mingacevir Gallery is 310 pieces.

CLUB-HOUSES

There are 8 clubhouses, including the Martyr Azar Niftaliyev clubhouse, S. Vurgun clubhouse, N. Narimanov clubhouse and others, in the town. Town residents also enjoy parks, like Sahil Park and Friendship Park.

MUSICAL SCHOOLS

There are 3 musical schools – Hacibayov School, Bulbul School and Martyr Qasimov School – in Mingacevir.
The study in these schools lasts 7 years. A total of 1,500 students study at these schools, and 350 professional teachers train them.
These schools have different courses on tar, kamanca, nagara, saz (national musical instruments), piano, violin and vocal.

THEATRE

The Davudova Mingacevir State Theatre was established on the basis of folk theatre in 1969 (Pic 21). Every clubhouse has its own ensemble. There are also singing and music circles, as well as training courses on computer, tailoring, board games, military patriotic and arts are functioning in the clubhouses.

EDUCATION

of MINGACHEVIR

Mingachevir

Mingechevir is also one of the central towns of science, education and culture.
There are two institutions of higher education, one college, 20 high schools, 3 musical schools, one private Turkish lycee and a drivers’ training school in the town.

A total of 1,814 teachers and 471 mentors engaged in education in the town.
A total of 18,125 students study at high schools in Mingechevir, while 200-250 students graduate from schools every year.
In 2002, 274 graduates entered various higher education institutions in the republic and abroad.

There are also seven non-educational centers under the Mingechevir education department.
They are the chess school, the canoe-training center, the technical creative center, the center for students’
environmental upbringing, the creative center for children, the youth sports center and the center of youth tourism and regional geography.

These centers are of great importance to let children obtain new skills and knowledge and to reveal ingenious young people.

Teachers and students establish very rich study halls at high schools.

There are 21 nursery schools in Mingechevir.
A total of 2,825 children of different ages
are brought up in these nursery schools. Two
of the nursery schools - No 10 and 16 - switched
to the “step by step” methodology devised
by the Open Society Institute (USA) in March
1998.

MINGECHEVIR Polytechnic Institute

Politechnical

This institution of higher education started as a branch of the Azerbaijani Oil Academy in 1991,
but became independent and was developed into Mingechevir Polytechnic Institute the same year.

The institute offers specialties as follows:
the regulation of economy; management of economy;
state and municipality management; heating and
electric power stations; mechanical engineering;
vehicles and tractors; technical exploitation
of vehicles; organization of vehicular traffic;
electro insulation; cables and condensers; information
processing and automation of management systems,
and repair of vehicles and services. A total
of 1,210 students are currently studying in
the institute. Of these, 1,200 students study
for bachelor's degree, while 10 for master's
degree.

The number of staff of the institute is 150, of which 52 are doctors of science and candidates of sciences.

There are wide lecture halls, laboratories, a canteen, a reading hall, a library, a gymnasium, an assembly hall etc in the institute.
A computer center, which was established by the Soros international humanitarian organization and connected to the Internet, operates in the institute.

The rector of the institute is Akif Novruz oglu Haciyev, who is a candidate of pedagogical sciences.
The institute is located at the following address: 21 D. Aliyeva St., tel.: (994 147) 5-78-98; fax: (994 147) 5-87-00

The Mingechevir branch of the Azerbaijani Teachers Training Institute
This institute of higher education was established on the basis of Mingechevir Polytechnic college in 2002.
The institute prepares specialists in the following areas:

- pedagogy and methodology of pre-school education

- pedagogy and methodology of secondary education

- mathematics
- mathematics and physics

- Azerbaijani language and literature

- history

- English

There are also training courses on improving
teachers skills in the institute. The number
of students in the institute is 520, while the
number of staff is 80, including 13 doctors
and candidates of sciences.

The head of this institute of high education is Aslan Hasan oglu Damirov, who is candidate of physics and mathematics sciences.
The address of this education center is: 55/18 M.A. Rasulzada Avenue, tel.: (994 147) 5-31-37; fax: (994 147) 5-25-24, 5-41-57

MINGECHEVIR medical school

Politechnical

The school was established in 1991. There are 17 study halls at the school: anatomy, therapy, surgery, pediatrics and others.

The school offers specialties as follows:

- medical treatment

- obstetrics

- orthopedic stomatology
- nursery
- laboratory diagnosis
- pharmacology
There is a computer room at the school. What is more, every study hall was equipped with computers.
A total of 594 people are currently studying at the school, and 47 teachers with university degree instruct them.
The principal of the school is honored doctor of Azerbaijan Mammad Lala oglu Mammadov.
The school is situated at 27 Tabriz St., tel.: (994 147) 6-18-69; fax: (994 147) 6-29-28;
email: mrovshan@mail.ru

CLIMATE

of the CITY

Climate data for Mingachevir
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.1 (44.8) 8.6 (47.5) 12.9 (55.2) 20.9 (69.6) 26.0 (78.8) 30.0 (86) 33.9 (93) 32.6 (90.7) 28.4 (83.1) 21.0 (69.8) 14.4 (57.9) 9.3 (48.7) 20.43 (68.76)
Average low °C (°F) −0.9 (30.4) 0.4 (32.7) 4.0 (39.2) 9.3 (48.7) 14.2 (57.6) 18.6 (65.5) 21.6 (70.9) 20.6 (69.1) 17.0 (62.6) 11.1 (52) 6.2 (43.2) 1.4 (34.5) 10.29 (50.53)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 19 (0.75) 25 (0.98) 27 (1.06) 39 (1.54) 54 (2.13) 49 (1.93) 26 (1.02) 27 (1.06) 26 (1.02) 53 (2.09) 30 (1.18) 22 (0.87) 397 (15.63)
Source: Climate-Data.org

The climate in Mingachevir is referred to as a local steppe climate. In Mingachevir, there is little rainfall throughout the year. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification is BSk. The average annual temperature in Mingachevir is 15.3 °C. About 397 mm of precipitation falls annually.

Climate graph

Climate graph, Mingachevir

The least amount of rainfall occurs in January. The average in this month is 19 mm. With an average of 54 mm, the most precipitation falls in May.

Temperature graph

Temperature graph, Mingachevir

The temperatures are highest on average in July, at around 27.7 °C. January has the lowest average temperature of the year. It is 3.1 °C.

Climate table

Climate table, Mingachevir

The variation in the precipitation between the driest and wettest months is 35 mm. During the year, the average temperatures vary by 24.6 °C.

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