20 Jan 2017


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  • Karabakh : Etymology, territory and borders

    Karabakh : Etymology, territory and borders

    Karabakh is one of the ancient regions of Azerbaijan. The name of this inseparable part of Azerbaijan consists of two different Azerbaijani words: "gara" (black, big) and "bag" (garden, land). The combination of these two words is as ancient as the nation of Azerbaijan. The association of these two combined words with the definite part of Azerbaijan in every part of the world is an oracle. The word Karabakh given by the Azerbaijan nation to a part of their native lands was used for the first time 1,300 years ago (in the 7th century)!?. At first, Karabakh was used as a historical-geographical definition, but it later transformed to cover a larger geographical area. By the way, this aspect is very typical for Azerbaijan: Nakhchivan city - Nakhchivan region, Sheki city - Shaki region, Ganja city - Ganja region, Lenkoran city- Lenkoran region and etc.

    The history of the formation of Garabagh as a name of one particular region, provides a better scientific explanation for its etymology. Because the word "gara" has other meanings in Azerbaijani language (also in other Turkic languages) as well - such as "sih" (dense), "galin" (thick), "boyuk" (big, large), "tund" (strong), and others. From this point of view the term Karabakh gets such meanings as "gara bag" (dark garden), that is "boyuk bag" (a large garden), "six bag" (a dense garden), "galin bag" (a thick garden), "safali bag" (a picturesque garden) and others. Thus, the word "Karabakh" belongs to Azerbaijani people as Karabakh does itself.

    When Karabakh is a topic of discussions, the question of the location of Karabakh arises at first. What part of Azerbaijan does include Karabakh? The answer to this question of a high importance, and it is necessary to understand the problem of "Daghlig Garabagh" produced by the Armenians. Let us address ourselves to the origins in order to answer the question. When Karabakh khanate of Azerbaijan included this territory its regent Mirza Jamal Javanshir in consideration of this question in his work the "History of Karabakh" wrote: "According to the ancient historical books the frontiers of Karabakh are: from the south the river Araz - from Hudapharin Bridge to Sinig Bridge. At present the population of Gazah, Shamseddin and Demerchi-Hesenly lives near this bridge and Russian Tatars call it using the Russian term Krasniy Most that is the Red Bridge. From the east - the Kur River, which flows into the Araz River in Javad village and flows into the Caspian Sea. From the north - the Goran River, which flows from the Yelizavetpol frontier of Karabakh to the Kur Riverr, crosses it in many parts and riches the Araz River. From the west - the high mountains of Karabakh called Kusbek, Salvarti, Erikli.

    Such a detailed description of the territory and frontiers of Karabakh at the first stages of Russian occupation and colonization are explained by the following factors: 1) this fact is described by an official person directly connected with the government of Karabakh, in other words, this fact is reflected in an official document composed by an official representative of Russia; 2) on the other hand this fact is not only based at practices and realities, but it also finds reflection in the references. It is not occasional that ancient books are used to prove the position of Mirza Jamal. There was a general definition of Karabakh, which was not used only for Daghlig Garabagh, but for both mountainous and plain parts. In other words, the word combination of "Daglig Garabag" (Mountainous Karabakh) is a product of the subsequent periods, the name given to the one of the part of Karabakh as a result of separatist intentions. Even an ordinary logic proves this fact: If there is "Daglig Garabag" then there must be flat or low-lying Karabakh too! The reality is that there are both Daghlig Garabagh and Low-lying Karabakh (that is flat Karabakh) in Azerbaijan! And always both low-lying (flat) and Daglig (mountainous) Karabakh during all historical periods were the motherland of one nation - the nation of Azerbaijan, the nation who has in its language the words "gara" and "bag"! Hundreds of the most ancient and rarest models of folklore, which are the brilliant musical pearls of the nation of Azerbaijan, were created in Karabakh and are related to Karabakh.

    Source : Yagub Mahmudov, Karim Shukurov: Garabagh - Real history, facts, documents, Baku – 2005

  • The Christian History of Karabakh

    The Christian History of Karabakh

    In ancient times, Karabakh was a part of the ancient Azerbaijan state-Caucasian Albania, which mostly consisted of Turks and Caucasian tribes.

    The examples of material culture , numismatic evidences discovered in Khankendi, Aghdere, Khojavend, Shusha of Upland Karabakh, Berde, Terter, Aghdam, Aghjabedi, Fizuli,Beylegan as well as Lachin and Kalbajar of Lowland Karabakh during investigations reflect thoroughly the ancient material culture of Karabakh, ethno-cultural state, social-economic standards of people, their living conditions, and generally the economic, social, and cultural history of this part of Azerbaijan.  

    In early middle ages (IV century), after Christianity was adopted, Albanian Christia religious monuments were built in the Christian architectural style characterizing the building culture of Karabakh, the historical site of Azerbaijan, in IV-VII centuries.

    During some periods, although different religions replaced one-another, and since it all happened in the  historical fate of local people who were bound to their historical-ethnic lands, the nation could preserve its custom and tradition privacy, national character despite of changed religion and religious beliefs. However, it wasn’t always the same in everywhere.

    The main population of this region different from alien Armenians consisted of ethnic groups belonging to Caucasian language group and being of Turkish origin living in the area between river Aras and Great Caucasus for thousand years by origin, language, and culture.

    Depending on the influence of the period and time, there were different life styles, religious ideologies, so distinct features of spiritual culture appeared in connection with it. Different from other areas of Azerbaijan, the extension of religious divergency in Karabakh caused big changes in this area. When Christianity was replaced by Islam in Albania,  by making use of avtokhton Albanians’ being Christians,who kept  belief in Christian religious ideology and lived in upland areas of Karabakh, many Armenian families had been  evicted there since XIX century. They by grigorinizing the local Christian Albanians assimilated and named them “Hikes” and described the area as “a part of Hike country”.

    Thus, the researches display distinctly that material and spiritual culture of Upper Karabakh is an inseparable part of Azerbaijan material and spiritual culture, and give grounds for proving that all opposite ideas are unsubstantiated.

    The scientists who investigated architectural monuments of Caucasian Albania stated that these monuments are quite different from Armenians religious architectural monuments according to their architecture planning styles and most characteristic features. Those monuments belong to the national cultural heritage of our nation based on all historical facts.

    Aghoghlan temple in Lachin region, Khudaveng temple in Kalbajar region, Amaras temple in Khojavend, Holy Elysee temple complex, Ganjaser temple  in Aghdere are examples of  those monuments.

    Aghoghlan temple complex was built in IX century. It has a special place among Christian architectural monuments for its being efficient construction with basalt stones.Khudaveng temple complex, which is on the left bank of Terterchay in Kalbajar, was Khachin Albanian princedom. There was Albanian bishop’s residence and religious educational centre. The main temple built by the Albanian prince differs from the temples of neighbouring nations for its architectural features.

    Holy Elysee temple complex is located in Aghdere region of Nagorno Karabakh. It was built 2000m above sea-level on the top of a high mountain. The temple which was encircled with fortress walls was founded in V century.

    One of the most prominent monument of Caucasian Albanian Christian architecture Qandzasar temple complexes was built on the mountain on the left bank of Khachin river in Vangli village of Aghdere region. This temple, which was the residence of Albanian Christians for a long time, was called Ganjasar in the meaning of the main treasure of religion.

    The role of Turkish tribes in the administration of the Albanian government, in the development of its culture and architecture was undeniable. Therefore, most historians use the phrase “Albanian –Turkish architecture” when they speak about the Albanian architecture, and it is quite appropriate for that period. Some of these tribes living in the area of Albania became Christians by adopting Christianity, the other ones adopted Islam later. 

    However, the Armenians who had no historical roots in Caucasus, tried to appropriate the Albanian monuments and change their natonal identity with the purpose of creating their historical traces artificially. The monuments which were subject to most appropriation are of the period of Christianity. They tried to armenize them by following the emblems and symbols of Christian religion as well as the alike drawing samples among stone carvings and wall paintings on this type of monuments, so it has been resulted in falsifying the history. 

    The Georgian historian A. Chavchavadze reflected the appropriation facts of Azerbaijan monuments of the Christian period by Armenians thoroughly in his work “Armenians and Blood crying Stones”. Armenians call Azerbaijan lands, which they have taken shelters once, “Hy country- Eastern Armenia” by grigorinizing aboriginal Albanians artificially. However, investigators indicate that even monuments of Christianity period correspond to neither the Armenian language (grigoranity) nor Armenian culture and origin. Thus, the historical- archaeological and architectural investigation of Albanian- Christian monuments in Azerbaijan areas helps to clarify most peculiarities of Christianity. Moreover, one reason of appropriation of Albanian monuments by Armenians is to subordinate Albanian Apostol church to Armenian Grigorian church by abolishing it with the help of Russia in 1836. In the result of the Russian tsars’ policy in Caucasus, significance given by them to Armenians the centre of Albanian churches was converted to Armenians’ grigorian church groundlessly. Therefore, Albanian religious centre was moved to Echmiadzin.

    Albanian History

    Modern Azerbaijan comprising of current Armenia and one part of Georgia is historical state located in the area of South Dagestan. It was formed  In IV-III centuries BC.  and occupied in VIII century by Arab caliphate. Initially capital was Gabala, later Berde. In IV century BC. christianity was state religion during the ruling of Albanian state and it was under influence of christian ideology to some extent.

    Outstanding caucasian scientist and historian Yevgeni Ignatevich Krupnov stated:

    “There should be no restriction and obligation in the study of Albanian history. Historians from distinct countries study the history of Albania. However, one thing is obvious : Azerbaijanis should research history and destiny of  Caucasus Albania more than anyone.  They are accountable in front of world science and are in debt to the world science.”

    Corresponding to the information of Strabon population of Albania consists of tribes speaking in 26 languages. Utis, gargars, amazons, sovdes,kaspis, mags, sisaks, mards, amards, ariaks, anariaks, gels, legs and other  names of tribes and nations living in Albania are mentioned in sources. The most ancient caucasian and turkish tribes were from avtoxton ethnicity.

    From the first centuries of our era persian tribes migrated to Albania by the order of Sasani leaders, begining  from III-IV centuries migration of new turkish tribes as well as huns, subars, khazars, barsils to Caucasian Albania started. Until  the arrival of arabians population of Albania was comprised of  3 parts – caucasian, turkish and persian people.

    Specialists say that to link the word “Alban” with  turkish tribes is much more reasonable. Because at the moment tribe called alban is living in Kazakhstan in Middle Asia. According to the recent investigations turkish origin of Caucasian albans was proved. 

    Religion in Albania

    Christianity was spread in Caucasian Albania  after catholic Saint Eliseus’s  propaganda in 54- 57 years. For that reason Albanian church is called catholic church. It is one of the most ancient churches in Caucasus, also in Christian world.

    Albania is one of the countires established before IV century when christianity was not proclaimed as a state religion. In accordance with its traditions in the begining of first centuries first christian missioners from Jerusalem and Suria, catholics and their students came to Albania and established first christian communities.

    According to Albanian traditions there are 2 stages replacing each other in the dissemination of christianity: the name of the Apostolic  stage is associated with apostles such as Thaddeus, Bartholomew, Thaddeus’ disciple  Eliseus. It is also called as Syrophile period  dating back to IV century. Second stage is associated with  Gregory the Illuminator and  the Albanian king, Urnair.

    In I-II centuries wide popagation of christianity in the north-east and eastern part of Jerusalem after Pavel is associated with Phoma,  Andrei, Bartholomew, Phoma’s  brother Ardai, and Thaddeus’ students Eliseus and Mar.

    These catholics and their students were proliferating religion in Suria ( center was Antiokhia), small Greek state Osroena (center was Edessa), Nisibin, Mesopotamia (between two rivers),  small Armenia, as well as in the  east and northern – east part  in Iran (Salaphki-Ktesiphon) and southern Caucasus countries - Georgia, Albania.

    Influence of Christianity on Albania and creation of Christian community here are associated both  with catholic Bartholomew and Faddei. Musa Kalankatli says:

    “However when justice appeared, our hero and imperceptible creature –Father came to take care of us and sent his pupils to all parts of the world to spread the religion. Catholic Faddei who came to Armenia and then was killed by Sanaturk in province Artaz  was sent for eastern dwellers”- Musa Kalankatli I, VI.

    Albanian historian Musa Kalankatli says:

    “Student of  Faddei  Eliseus returning to Jerusalem talks about Faddei’s suffering to all catholics. Eliseus receives appointment  from Jacob, first patriarch of Jerusalem and Jesus’s brother. He had been appointed to East.” – Musa Kalankatli, I, VI.

    When authors say “other catholics” they mean that Faddei, Eliseus and othe catholics’ activities coincide to same time -  during I-II centuries. As you see in this text East is refering to Albania. Investigations of perceptions such as “ East”, “Eastern country”, “North-east” used by Musa Kalankatli are evidence that they refer to Albania or country of albans situated in the Eastern borders of christian world recpectively to Jerusalem.

    In  the first Syrophile  stage of spread of Christianity in Albania Bible sayings were proliferating not only in Near East and middle east but also in the Arami language. This is associated to the activities of catholics and their students as well as activities of missioners from Syria. Musa Kalankatli presented information which allow us to reason Syrophile stage; activities of Syria monks in IV-V centuries in Albania, and arami inscriptions on christian monuments are examples of it.

    II  greek- inclined  stage of christianity was common in all over South Caucausus, but was different in terms of duration and its features and it can be explained with political grounds. Investigations revealed that the relations of albanian, armenian, iber churchs with empire church should be explined by “political conditions, in other words dependence level of the country from Eastern Rome empire should be considered relatively with dependence level of the church.” It is known that there was more dependence in Armeni , relatively low in Iberia, and absolutely no dependence in Albania. Therefore, after  greek-inclined illuminator Grigori and his grandson Grigoris  albanian church carried on its relation with Jerusalem church.  All this proves that prevailing fact in science that first christian propagandists were sent to Albania from Armenia  is unjustified. It can be said also about the opinions that christian propogandists working in rightshore provinces of Albania came from Armenia and  propogandists acting in the leftshore northern-west provinces of Albania came from Iberia. As known Sasanis had no constant treatment towards Southern Caucasus christian nations which were under their ruling. Victory of christianity in Eastern Rome empire strained this relation. Different christian sectas combating with state church were started to be protected in the area of Sasani state. According to Musa Kalankatli, alban-arshaki leaders such as Urnair, II Vache, III Vachagan were fighting againist different buddism religions to vanish them. 2 of the orders adopted in Aguen meeting held in V century were devoted to prosecute remnants of religions before christianity.

    Since VIII century northern part of Azerbaijan became under influence of arabians and Islam. But majority of Albania’s population practise christianity officially proclaimed together with Mehranis, representatives of leading generation. As in other neighboring christian countries there were also other religious streams out of main religion and people in these sectas which are enemies of Grigorian stream were brutally prosecuted.

    Armenian Grigorian church had exclusive role in the violation of the freedom and independence rights of Albanian church. Armenian catholics were using assistance from Arabic caliphate as they have done during  Sasani’s ruling, to reach their goal and to make Albanian church be obedient to them. Amavilar, seeking back in South Caucasus taking advantage from the conflict between Armenians and Albans they created opportunity for making Albanian church obey to the Armenian church.

    Armenian catholic wrote following letter to Ilia Abdu l- Malik :

    Armenian church excluded Albanian clergymen from their positions and began to change faith of Albans to Grigorianism living in mountainous parts which cannot be reached by Arabians. Armenian clerics caused to vanish credit of Arran church among population and demolished all monuments of Albanian culture by the help of Arabic leaders. And they left nothing to recall about Albans.  All these actions were implemented initially by the help of  caliphate and then other invaders. Religious figures of Grigorian church destroyed Arran monuments but firstly they turned to slums.

    I.P.Petrushevski indicates that armenian church was way to armenianize country in Albania. And its role became noticable beginning from VIII century. So since that time  armenian catholic  Yegi overthrew Albanian catholic   Nerses (Bakruv) with the assistance of arab leaders and movement of pravoslavic, greek-inclined , georgian –inclined  people,  indicating attempt of defending independence of Albanian church was created by armenian monophisits.”

    Despite these difficulties and critical combat condition Albanian catholic church managed to remain independent until 1836. However, in 1836 its functioning was stopped by Russia and passed to under the obeyance of Grigorian church. In spite of this in 2003 alban catholic church was registered in State Committee on Religious Institutions  and its activity was restored again.

    Albanian Cross Stones

    The architecture composition, constuctive, and decorative plastic solution of Albanian cross stones, which are memorial stones and Stellas spread in bulk and single forms in different regions of the Azerbaijan and Armenian Republic, are inseparable from their content and symbolic identity. In the memory plastic of early and mature middle ages of Caucasian Albania certain pre-christianity outlook and symbolic imaginations were depicted. The images of Albanian cross stones first organically crossed with the characters of religious symbolic Stellas during many centuries, and then were formed under the influence of two- three religions. The whole identity, originality, and the main difference from Armenian crossers lie in it. As it is shown, pre-Christianity stellas which bear pagan symbolic drawings and notions about the world system played a certain role in the formation of Albanian tombstone, memorial and border stellas, cross stones. The cross which symbolized the sun, fertility, life tree before asserts their being related to the new Christian religion.

    Albanian cross stones astonish with their boldness in the solution of the art of architecture which emerged in the result of organic synthesis of architecture, art, and religious symbols based on people’s beliefs and traditions formed during centuries.

    The researches show that long before Christianity in the formation of crosses the role of ancient Turkish kins was great. People of those periods created the description of the sun on the ground, then raising it high on the wood, stone with the desire of bringing it together with the sky, and it caused the formation of present form of the crosses.

    It is the reason that Albanian crosses were adjusted mostly to classical traditions, so Albanian crosses are directly related to pre-Christian elements and religious rites

    The image of a cross joins different unrelated decorative arrangements with one-another on the Albanian cross stones.Albanoan cross is the only cross in the world which bears the signs of pre-Christianity beliefs and indications of the comprehension of the world. All compositions of these stones are reflected like the symbols of the link between the sky and the land, the sun, light, and fertility.

    The experts sum up all the Albanian cross stones scattered on the South Caucasian area mostly under 4 groups.  They are Khachin, Artsak, Jugha, and Yenivang cross stones. Khachin cross stones, which dates back from the period of Albanian monarchy, were mostly investigated in the area of Kalbajar region. It was done by Doctor of Architecture D. A. Akhundov and Doctor of Philosophy M.D. Akhundov. The most interesting sample of Khachin cross stones are two adjoining cross stones in Khudavang temple complex.

    Artsak cross stones are the stones located in the area of historical Artsak province.  The most popular of them and arousing the great interest in scientific literature cruciform Artsak cross stone. This stone (1633) is rather interesting and original, it was solved within the framework of canons which was adopted in every part of Caucasian Albania. ( the spoken cross stone was taken to Echmiadzin and is presented  as an art example of Armenian thought today).  Despite of its cruciform, a big panel consisting of three circle has  the main art and symbolic dominance in the image of Stella. The middle circle is in the form of geometric network with 8 equally divided parts. 

    Jugha cross stones  are mainly on the bank of River Aras on the border with South Azerbaijan.There is the same description on most of interesting Jugha cross stones with unique solutions: The bodies of  two winged dragons facing each-other are covered with horn armors, their open mouths were turned aside. Between two dragons the winged corona or the man’s head with coronalike hair was described.  It looks like Isa’s head according to its icon graphs signs. D.A. Akhundov notes that in this complicated description the symbolic group which joins several religions and faiths (Zoroastrianism, Mitraism, Christianity, and Islam) was presented by Albanian craftsmen.  The descriptions were placed on christians’ grave stones , a single cross or crosses prove it. Isa is protected by dragons which are remnants of previous religions in this description.  The heads of dragons with open mouths and without clenching teeth turned towards Isa’s head prove it. These Christian – pagan compositions emerged in the result of the existence of different religions within one nation. The only nation like this in South- Caucasus was Caucaian Albanians.

    Yenivang cross stones were discovered mainly in West Azerbaijan ( present Arrmenian Republic) in the area of Yenivang Albanian temple and west regions of the Azerbaijan Republic. Yenivang cross stones look like Jugha cross stones in terms of composition and solution. In most of these stones the figure of God is in the first plan.

    The main characteristic and differentiating feature of Yenivang cross stones (Nowadays, Armenians present this temple with the name of Novarang to the world as an ancient Armenian temple) is the image of Isa on the top and base of the cross. On the head of these descriptions, there is a moon, supposedly, mitraist forks. The latest and most mature Yenivang cross stones date back to XIII century.  Most of these cross stones with Alban writings on either were destroyed or their historical importance was damaged by breaking alban writings on them after Armenians’ deportation to this area. It is obvious from these cross stones the Christian God and Mitrad, which were worshipped in early Middle Ages in Caucasian Albania, were derivatives of the same god of a single religious art image. It should be noted that the most important art samples and historically important ones of these Albanian Stellas were carried off to Armenia zealously during the USSR period.

    Albanian Architecture

    The examples of Albanian architecture were discovered in the areas of the Azerbaijan, Armenian Republics, and Daghestani and were investigated.  The most interesting models of Albanian architecture preserved till our time are fortresses and fortifications for defence and churches, temples of a religious character. The Turkish kins had an undeniable role in the management of Albanian government and in the development of its culture and architecture. Therefore, some historians use the phrase “Albanian Turkish architecture” while speaking about the Albanian architecture, and this forms full conformity with that period. Some of these tribes who live in the area of Albania became Christians by adopting Christianity, the others adopted Islam later. Derbent fortress, Javanshir fortress, Chiraggala and others are among the buildings distinguished today for their being grandiose ones for defence which belong to Albanian cultural heritage.

    Most of monuments of Caucasian Albanian period reached till our period by preserving their initial forms. Khudavang temple complex in Kalbajar region (XIII century), Aghoghlan temple in Koshalar village of Lachin region (IX century), Amaras temple in Sos village of Khojavand region (IV century), Saint Elysee  temples in Shaki (II century), and Aghdere (IV century) regions, Gandzasar temple in Vang village of Aghdere region (XIV century), Lakit temple in Gakh region (Vcentury), Gum temple (VI century), Yeddikilse (Seven churches) temple (IVcentury)Kurmukh temple (XII century) Hagapat temple in the area of West Azerbaijan ( the area of present Azerbaijan Republic), Goshavang  temple,Aghtala temple, Tatev temple, Uzunlar Temple, Yenivang temple, Senain temple  are the brilliant samples of Albanian temple architecture which reached till our period among these monuments.

    Albanian architectural art always arosed interest and distinguished with its specific complex colour , technique, unique beauty and style.   The other Caucasian people developed their culture and architecture by making use of ancient Albanian culture which always arosed interest and drew attention like all other innovations. 

    All types of architecture which belong to Eastern Christianity developed in Albania. The characteristic buildings of the first period of Albanian Christianity were churches. These churches consisted of profitable temples with an oblong worship hall.  The top of these temples were covered with double simple stones. The special architecture called round temples in the style of Christian architecture were spread in Albania and this style belonged to only Albanians.It has its own specific reason. Thus, the construction of round temples goes back to early Christian period, and these temples were built in the periods when Christianity wasn’t completely adopted, and it was mixed with the worship to celestial bodies according to investigators.

    This feature also shows itself in Albanian crosses of Early Christian period. The popular form of the Christian architecture in Albania is sovmas.   Though Sovmas played the role of small chapels on caravan roadsides, actually they were memorial buildings. Sovmas with and without sanctuaries are also met in Albania. The wall of Sovmas was decorated with sighting stones of elegant patterns. The most complicated buildings of Albanian period are considered basilicas and abbeys. Most investigators consider that this style belonged to only Albanians because the elements on the walls of architectural monuments of Albanian period are evaluated like characteristic features of the monuments of only this period.

    Khachin Princedom

    In Middle Ages, Christian Albanian Melik which existed in the area of Nagorno Karabakhof Azerbaijan was a growth period of Arsakh –Khachin princedom in XII-XIIIcenturies. The capital of this princedom, which was a part of Ancient Albania, was located in the basins of Khachinchay and partially Terter River. One of followers of Albanian Mehraniler dynasty Hasan –Jalal (1215-1261) was the lord of this princedom. The exact geneologies which prove Hasan Jalal’s being from Mehraniler dynasty also exist. Thus, Hasan Jalal’s direct genetic relationship with Albanian Mehraniler dynasty and as well as his political power legacy from VII to XIII centuries are being followed. Hasan Jalal was a sovereign prince of Khachin and partially Arran, and he wasn’t dependent on the Georgian tsar.  This Arsakh –Khachin ruler was mentioned with the highest titles in Armenian, Georgian, and Persian synchronous sources as well as epigraphic writings and called “Majesty”, “Albanian great master”, “Albanian tsar”, “tsar”, “great prince of Khachin and Arsakh countries”, “prince of Khachin countries”, “majestic, brilliant ruler”, “prince of princes”. Həsən- Hasan Jalal was distinguished with the title of “absolute ruler”.  The stone post of Ganjasar temple reads: “native absolute ruler of Arsakh country and Khachin boundaries”.  The most grandiloquent title of this ruler was shown on stone post of Ganjasar temple written in 1240: “I, Hasan Jalal- an obedient slave of God, Vakhtang’s son, Great Hasan’s grandson, native absolute ruler of Great Arsakh with wide areas…”  It is beyond doubt that Hasan Jalal’sgenetic relationships with authoritative dynasties characterize high position of Khachin-Arsakh’s ruler. His years of reign can be appraised Albanian economic, political, and cultural renaissence. This growth is reflected in the literature, military construction, architecture, formation of cult devices. Kirakos from Ganja wrote his “History” book in this period.  With Hasan Jalal’s direction, who was eager to prove his succesion relationship with great Albanian mehranis and trying to state incessanty of power of Albanian ruler, Moisey Kalankatli kept writing his book “The History of Albanians” and added four new chapters to it.

    In those chapters, Hasan Jalal’s years of reign and the construction of Ganjabasar complex during his government years were reflected. The Albanian historical-literary tradition was rebirthed with this action. Hasan Jalal could remove material-spiritual values of most countries formed during many centuries from the stage of history, establish good relationships with Mongols, and ensure their being on good terms with Albanian people.  Albanian people could preserve their ethnic consciousness during severe historical trials. They defended the Albanian language, territory, political and religious unity.  The population of Arsakh- Lachin princedom created different written monuments in the Albanian language in XII-XIII centuries. (The people who inhabited in the flat part of Albania communicated in the Arran-Albanian, Turkish, Persian, and Arabic languages and worked written monuments.

    Ganjabasar temple compex was built at Hasan Jalal’s urgent request.  The ancient parts of Ganjasar temple existed long before Hasan Jalal’s years of reign and was the family grave of Jalairis who were rulers of Khachin. Hasan Jalal was buried here in 1261.  The main church of Ganjabasar was built with the Albanian patriarch catholicos Nerses’ advice and Hasan Jalal’s command from 1216 till 1238.  The Ruler himself called this church “the throne- crown church of Albania.”   The stone post of the church writes: This church was built for Albanians.  84 stone posts existed in this church. Ganjabasar temple complex located in Vangli village of Aghdere region in Nagorno- Karabakh is a pearl of the Albanian architecture of Middle Ages, and there is no analogue for it in the Armenian architecture. The period which Hasan Jalal lived in   is distinguished by its richness in the Caucasian history. Most historians of that century gave a thorough description of that period.  Some of them (for example, Kirakos from Ganja) took an active part in the historical events happened in that period.  In 1227 or a little bit later,  Jalaleddin Mangburnu’s vizier Garaf al Mulk came up to  Khachin fortress by collecting the required taxes.

    Hasan Jalal came down in this fortress. He could escape by paying 20 thousand dinars and freeing prisoners.  Hasan Jalal among most princes showed his obedience to Mongolsin 1236.  The properties of the obedient rulers were not touched.  They didn’t pay any taxes for a certain period. Soon Mongols’ ruthless march to Khachin began.  Even impregnable fortresses couldn’t survive in front of Mongols’ strong pressure and fire.  “The land was covered with the dead bodies of killed people, blood was shed like water, nobody was given a mercy, and piles of bones after this event reminded the mountains formed with stones during long years.” Hasan knowing about Mongols’ march found shelter in Kokhanaberd fortress together with inhabitants of his province. Mongols encircled the fortress, and began talks with sieged ones having realized the difficulty of the seizure of the fortress. Mongols presented Khachin ruler his country with supplementary areas. Hasan Jalal took some preparatory measures for frequent reception of future mongol messengers to his country by realizing the inevitability of paying endless taxes beforehand, provided Mongols with everything generously, and survived his citizens. It is supposed that the marriage of Jormaghun’s son Bora Nain’s with Hasan’s daughter Ruzukan is related to that period.  During this period he could win the trust of Mongol’s chief command and had possibility to influence him to a certain extent. However, all these didn’t help Hasan Jalal to avoid the forthcoming severe trials. Later, mongol tax collectors under the leadership of Argu and Bugay, who played a disastrous role in Hasan Jalal’s life, came.  Hasan jalal was subject to some severe punishments in the presence of all Albanian nobles by Buqay and he destroyed his invincible fortresses. Hasan could only survive by having paid him  too much gold and silver. Finally, Hasan Jalal achieved to find a powerful guardian for himself. Gold Orda khan Bati’s son Christian Sartag became the defender of his coreligionists. Hasan Jalal’s heritage properties-Jaraberd, Akana, and Gargar, were given back to him. He could get substantial privileges for Khachin ruler Albanian catholicos Nerses.  Jalal relationship wit Sartag lasted till Albanian ruler’s death. Argu’s insidious deeds made Jalal to start a long journey to Chief Mongol khakan Munke’s palace.  He went to Sartag Munke’s palace when Bati khan died in 1255. Munke issued a decree about Hasan Jalal’s princedom and owning a property.  Argun was called to Mongolia and he was severely charged in the court. In 1256, smbat Orbelian, who was on good terms with Argu, could release him during his visit to Munke’s palace. Two lawyers who were against Argu were executed, and the former defendant returned to Caucasus with his previous powers. Hasan Jalal could come back to his native lands only five years later. However, he was captured and exposed to intolerable tortures. Hasan’s daughter Ruzukan hastened to “the hope and asylum of Christians, the great and famous ruler” Hulakun’s wife Doguz khatun to save his father’s life. (Hulaku’s wife was Christian). Having known about it Arqun ordered to kill him during the night. He was cut in joint parts, his son Atabey could get his father’s dead body and take it to Ganjasar. He was buried in the family graveyard in Ganjasar. About all the next Albanian catholicos and Hasan Jalal’s family members were buried in Ganjasar. The gravestone inscriptions prove it, too. Albanian Hasan Jalal’s family (Jalalilar) was entitled “malik” (monarch) by Jahan shah Garagoyunlu. Later, Jalalilar family was divided into five autonomous Albanian feudal princedom- monarchies. (Gulustan, Jaraberd, Khachin, Varanda, Dizag) The title of “malik” was added to surnames. (Malik Yeganov, Malik Shahnazarov, etc.) These surnames which adopted Islam were changed into Azerbaijani ones. It’s significant that monarchies are characteristics for Karabakh, i.e these political organizations first appeared in Karabakh. Later, in XVII-XIX centuries these monarchies were met in Sunik, Shaki, and it’s beyond doubt is connected with the migration of monarchs.  There were many attempts to describe the institute od monarchy as a characteristic event for “Armenian reality” in Armenian history which was against the truth. The research of Azerbaijanian, as well as Armenian feudal generations proves that there were no monarchies in Armenian surroundings in Minor Asia and Iran. These political bodies belong to Albanian feudal generations lived in Khachin in late middle ages. These generarions are connected with Hasan Jalal’s family, Albanian Mehranilar and Arshakilar dynasties. Armanian historians trying to prove monarchies being of Armenian origin show monarch families from Irevan, Sunik, and Gafan in XVII-XIX centuries as an example.      However, it is known that all these monarchies originated from Arsakh- Karabakh. It should be noted that coming to the term of monarch, it’s one of the results drawn from the socio-legal norms of migrating Garagoyunlu military noblemen. The terms tanuter, paron are characteristic for Armenian reality. It seem obvious that Albanian feudal noblemen adopted the term monarch, the institute of monarch with a special purpose, and this case was the result of their intention to separate themselves from Armenians. It’s important that Hasan Jalal’s family had a secular government till XV century, from XV century (when it was divided into five parts) this family members performed the duties of patriarch catholicos of Albanian autocephalous apostolic church in Ganjasar. Therefore, they had become spiritual leaders of Arsakh- Khachin princedom since the abolition of Albanian church in 1836.


    Azerbaijan History (7 volumes) I, II volumes, Baku, 2007

    The Political History and Historical Geography of Caucasian Azerbaijan,  by Farida Mamadova, Baku, 1993

    Moisey Kalankatli’s Work “Albanian History” Like a source About  the Social System of Caucasian Albania, by Farida Mammadova, Baku, 1977 (in  the Russian language)

    Azerbaijan in VII-IX centuries ,  by Ziya Bunyadov , Baku, 2008

    Albanian History, Mkhitar Gosh –Albanian chronicles , By Moisey Kalankatli, Baku, 2007

    From the history of Azerbaijani Turks’ Formation, by Giyasaddin Geybullayev, Baku, 1994

    Christianity in Caucasian Albania, by Rashid Goyushov, Baku, 1984  (in  the Russian language)

    Ideology and Culture in Caucasian Albania in III-VII centuries, Moscow, 1958 (in  the Russian language)

    Sketches about Albanian History and Culture, By K.V. Trever, Moscow, Leningrad, 1959 (in  the Russian language)

  • Karabakh as part of the Russian empire

    Karabakh as part of the Russian empire

    Further to the Kurekchay agreement of 1845, the Karabakh Khanate was annexed to Russia. The preservation of khan's government for additional 17 years had a definite strategic meaning.

    The murder of Ibragim khan in 1806 showed that Russia neglected all the rules and laws. Under those circumstances, the power of Mehdigulu (1806-1822), who inherited the power from his father Ibragim khan, was not strong. The tsarist government strengthened its occupation regime and desired to weaken the economic position of the local authorities in order to establish its own power in the region. They also attempted to win the predominance of the Armenified Albanians whom they regarded as a support. After the abolition of the Khanate like other regions of North Azerbaijan the commandant way of ruling was also established in this area and it was annexed to the Military-Muslim district (with the center in Shusha).

    At that time lieutenant-general V.Q.Medetov (1782-1829) of Armenian origin, who contributed to the invasive operations of the Russian troops, established a real Armenian-Russian colony in Karabakh. The tsarist government was influenced by the 1830s revolts and conducted an administrative-political reform in South Karabakh on April 10th 1940. The reform turned Karabakh into the Shusha region and put Karabakh under the supervision of the Caspian province (with the center in Shamakhy). Thus, the concept of Karabakh lost its political meaning and was preserved as a geographical one.

    During the administrative division of 1846, the Shusha region was subdued to the newly established Shamakhy province (from 1859 to Baku). With the creation of the Yelizavetpol province, the Shusha region was put under its supervision and three more districts-Zangezur, Djavanshir and Djabrayil - were created there. Thus, the Shusha district also lost its unique administrative- political meaning. These reforms created every opportunity for Armenians to take part in the governing.

    The tsarist Russia, which occupied those areas tried to armenify the local inhabitants in order to strengthen its positions. After the signing of the Turkmenchay agreement in 1828 (File 3) this process became more systematic and purposeful. Article 15th of the Turkmenchay agreement ratified the resettlement of Armenians from Iran to North Azerbaijan. According to this article, the Shah gave one year to the families living in Iran to freely move from Iran to Russia without obstacles from the side of the government and local authorities, to carry and sell their property, goods for sale and things. AS for immovable property, the families are given the term of five years to sell it to make arrangements about that on their own will. Yet the grant does not concern the people committing crime when a year has not passed over the case. As mentioned above, this article was included into the contract for ensuring the mass resettlement of Armenians from Iran to North Azerbaijan including Karabakh.

    By the Edirne contract of 1829 Armenians started to move from the Osmanly Empire to the newly occupied lands of North Azerbaijan. Armenians mainly moved to Karabakh.

    Ethnic composition of Karabakh khanate during its abolishment reflected on "Description", drawn up by instruction of A.P.Yermolov (1816-1827), the Commander-in-Chief of Russian troops in Caucasus. In spite of Armenianize policy, carried out before drawing of this document (1805-1822), most of Karabakh population was Azerbaijanis, statistics reports (since 1593).

    According to "Description", 15.729 of 20.095 families in Karabakh were Azerbaijanis (1.111 in the town, 14.618 in the country), 4366 - Armenians, including Albanians (421 in the town, 3.945 in the country). Most of these Armenians was Grogoriyanized and Armanianized Albans. New Armenian villages (Maragali, Janyatag etc.) began to appear in Karabakh in result of Armenian's mass removal to this province. (Some time later Armenians erected monuments of the glory of removal in Karabakh, but destroyed them during territorial claims against Azerbaijan in 1980s.). According to official returns, 40 thousand Armenians were removed from Iran to Northern Azerbaijan, including Karabakh, while 90 thousand - from Ottoman empire in 1828-1830s. Their number with unofficial Armenians settlers exceeded 200 thousand. Number of Armenians began to increase in ethnic composition of Karabakh after removal.

    Completion of Gregorianization and Armenianization of Azerbaijan-Albanian population of Karabakh

    Gregorianization and Armanianization of Albanian population of Karabakh was long historical process, as was described above:

    1. Native population of Karabakh was Albanian tribes as in other lands of Northern Azerbaijan;

    2. Christianity was spread in some places of Albania, including Karabakh in IV century;

    3. Islam spread throughout the country during occupation of Northern Azerbaijan by Arabic caliphate and its ruling in VII-IX centuries, but Albanians, living in the mountainous part of Karabakh, did not change their religion;

    4. Armenian-Gregorian missionaries, migrated to the Caucasus, seizing favorable situation, appeared in result of Arabic caliphate's occupation, realized Gregorianization and then Armenianization of Christian-Albanian population of Karabakh.

    5. Christian population of Karabakh called themselves Albanians in the letter, addressed to Russian tcar Peter I. It proves that they still considered themselves Albanians in early XVIII century;

    6. Russia's intervention into the region and Armenians' removal from other countries to the Southern Caucasus, including Azerbaijan, lead to strengthening of Armenian factor. This policy created turning-point in historical fate of Gregorianized Albanians. The last stage of their Armanianization started.

    7. Armenians' mass removal from Iran and Ottoman empire to Karabakh along with other Azerbaijan regions during Russia-Iran wars (1804-1813, 1826-1828), Russia-Turkey wars (1806-1812, 1828-1829) and particularly after Turkmenchay (1828) and Adirna (1829) agreements completed Armenianization of Gegorianized Albanian population. Albanian Catholicos was abolished in 1836. We can call them Armenians just after this;

    8. In spite of that, Daghlig Garabagh Armenians have preserved their specificity, outgoing from Albanian root, among general Armenian population.

    Expanding of Armenians' aggressive activity in Azerbaijan, including Karabakh

    Armenians' mass removal to Northern Azerbaijan lands, including Karabakh, continued after 1930s. That is why N.Shavrov wrote in 1911, that more than 1 million of 1,3 million of Armenians in Transcaucasia was incomers. Inspite of these, 52% of the population in Karabakh (within borders of khanate) was Azerbaijanis, while 46% - Armenians (including Armenians of local Albanian origin.). Resettlement of Armenians in the mountainous part of Karabakh became more intensive. This policy was aimed to providing of Armenian incomers' compact living and had strategic purpose.

    Armenians' strengthening in management control, increasing of their number by resettlement and reinforcement of their economical potential were carried out at the same time. Thus, Armenians could reinforced in the economical life of Karabakh in result of favorable condition, created by tsarism, and its multilateral support.

    Economical potential, got by Armenians in result of discriminatory policy of Russian empire, its support and purposeful policy in Northern Azerbaijan, became apparent at abolishment of obligation (илтизам) system over oil land in Baku in 1872. Thus, Azerbaijanis bought only 5% of oil land, while Armenians more than 50% during haggling of oil sections. 55 large and middle companies of 167 oil companies, operating in Baku in 1872, belonged to Armenians. There were created favorable conditions for Armanians' culture-educational upgrade as well. However, Karabakh and its central city Shusha remained public-political and culture center of Azerbaijan people. Despite all hinders and resistance of Tsar government and its puppets (Armenians) Karabakh developed as Azerbaijan-Moslem province.

    Thus, Tsar Russia created favorable conditions for Armenians' resettlement to Northern Azerbaijan, including Karabakh, their administrative-political, social-economical and cultural development here. Some time later Armenians began to struggle for realization of idea "Great Azerbaijan" in Azerbaijan territories. One of the integral parts of this idea is to annihilate local Azerbaijan population in Karabakh, Yerevan, Nakhichevan and other Azerbaijan territories and to capture their lands. As Armenians treacherous rebellions, stirred up against Ottoman state since 1890s, failed, the center of struggle was moved to Northern Azerbaijan.

    Armenians committed mass genocide against Azerbaijan people again since 1905. Armenians' genocide policy acquire more tragic nature in Karabakh. But carnage of 1905-1906s did not appeased them. They attempted to establish mythic "Great Armenia" again, seizing the historical situation, caused by the First World War. Armenians, whose rebellions against Ottoman state in 1915 failed, began to focus main forces in the Southern Caucasus and carried genocide out against Azerbaijanis with Tsarism's support. Armenian armed groups, served in Russian army for long period - during anarchy in the Trascaucasia, created in result of coup d'etat (February, 1917) and Bolsheviks' accession to power (October, 1917), began new and more terrible genocide against Azerbaijanis, joining Dashnak-Bolsheviks. These new mass carnage, begun in Baku in July 1918 and enveloped whole country was very hard blow to Azerbaijan government. New stage began in history of Azerbaijan with establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Young government took measures to prevent plans of Armenian gang groups and Dashnak-Bolshevik regime concerning annihilation of Azerbaijan people.

    Source: Yagub Mahmudov, Karim Shukurov Garabagh - Real history, facts, documents, Baku – 2005

  • Karabakh khanate

    Karabakh khanate

    After the overthrow of the Afshar Empire led by Nadir Shah the prominent state official Panahali bey Djavanshir founded one of independent states of Azerbaijan - Karabakh. He was born in the Saridjaly village of Karabakh. Mirza Djamal, the vizier of Karabakh khanate wrote: "Late Nadir shah after occupying Karabakh, Ganja, Tiflis and Shirvan provinces, invited all the working people of cities and villages in his place and gave them job among his servants and paid them salary, they gained respect and ranks.

    He also involved Panah Ali khan best known as Panahali bey Sarydjaly Djavanshir, who distinguished himself in every action, was famed and unconquerable in any battle and brave in all the wars with Nadir Rum's troops (the wars with Osmanly empire in 1730th are implied here -Y.M, K.S). Yet after the Mughan congress Nadir laid punishment on those Karabakhians who did not recognize his power and exiled Muslim population to Afghanistan and Khorasan.

    Panakhali's brother Farzali khan, who protested against these measures was put to death. In period of the Shakh staying in Khorasan, Panakhali bey took the occasion and run away to Karabakh province together with his relatives and closes in 1737-1738. Shah informed about his escape sent couriers after him to prevent him from running away. Nadir shah instructed the leaders of Azerbaijan, Ganja, Tiflis and Shirvan to catch Panah khan wherever they see him and send to the shah's residence. Though by the order of the shah Panah ali and his family were tormented and set a penalty, that did not work.

    Thus, Panah ali khan dodged the responsibility to subdue to Nadir shah and bid to rule his native Karabakh in the most democratic way. As a result, an independent Azeri state-Karabakh khanate established following the death of Nadir shah.

    After the declaration of the establishment of independent Karabakh khanate the main goal was to strengthen it. The first measure taken by Panakhali was to return those Muslims driven by Nadir shah to their native land. The return of displaced families and their resettlement of their native land strengthened Karabakh khanate. The future khan of Karabakh 15 year-old Ibragimkhalil was among those who had been first to return.

    In period of Karabakh khanate establishment it did not comprise cities as Tebriz, Ardebil, Ganja, Shamakhy, Baky, Nakhichevan, Sheki, Derbend. However, the existence of such politico-economic centers would play a great role in the further development of the khanate. Beside military-political works Panah Ali also made a great progress in the military installations and establishment of towns.

    One of the first steps taken in this sphere was the construction of the Bayaty tower named after the ancient Azeri-Turkish tribes bayats in 1748. "The khan assembled his family, relatives and aged men there. The people surrounding him and those who heard about his progress and kind treatment moved to the Bayaty tower from Tebriz and Ardebil.

    Panakh khan's activity in the sphere of creation of an independent state promoted his official recognition. "Mirza Djamal wrote: "Adyl shah's order on the attachment of the title of "khan" to Panakh Ali and on his appointment the ruler of Karabakh khanate along with valuable dressing-gowns, golden saddled horses and a sword designed with precious stones were brought to the tower Bayaty by the close man of Serdar Amir Aslan in 1161 by the Muslim calendar, in 1745 by Christian calendar (1748 is correct).

    In fact Adil shah's order was a behindhand document. The real title had been deserved much earlier than the order and regardless of it.

    An unsuccessful raid of Sheki khanate to Karabakh played a great role in the recognition of Panah Alia as a leader of Karabakh khanate. Sheki khan Hadjy Chelebi, following his unsuccessful Bayaty battle announced: "Panah Ali has previously been a silver without coin. But we came and attached him this coin and went away" (or "Pahah Ali declared him khan while I confirmed it by my defeat").

    These words of Hadji Cheleby turning to a popular saying had even much power than Adil shah's order. Ahmed bey Djavanshir wrote:"…After the victory (The Bayaty battle-Y.M, K.S) the legend about Panah Ali's courage subdued all Muslim tribes, residing in Karabakh, to Panah Ali with no resistance".

    At the same time the Bayaty battle proved the vulnerability of the tower to further historical events. Therefore, it was necessary to construct a new one. Mirza Adygozel bey wrote: "Panah Ali khan built a tower in Ternekut best known as Shahbulaghy. He also constructed Mosques, houses and bazaars and public baths from stones and limestone. After the works were completed he settled there in 1165 (1751)".

    The Kurekchay agreement

    With the strengthening of Panah khan the feudal lords-monarchs, supporting scarcity, increased their subversive activity. It was necessary to prevent that by some military methods. Otherwise, the khanate would lose its territorial integrity. The original sources also confirm that.

    Mir Mehdi Khazani wrote impartially: "The five of Karabakh districts have been separated and each acquired its own name…". Mirza Adygozel bey wrote about the Karabakh feuds-meliks: "Dizag is one of these feuds. Its ruler is Melik Yegan. He escaped from Lori and in period of Nadir's ruling he was appointed the melik and gained respect by an order of the shah.

    The second is in Varan. Melik Shahnezer was its ruler. He is of a more ancient family and has bigger inheritance. His ancestors were the aristocrats of Goycha. Then they escaped and came to Varan province and lost their heads from the wealth they had in their lands.

    The third is Khachyn. Its is ruled by the son of Hasan Djalalyan. Their majesty designed the power in a proper way and became a ruler. This family which died of this ruling career was not the independent ruler of the region. At last the state flag of the late Panah khan Djavanshir and the sun lightened every corner of Karabakh province. At that time the Khyndyrystan Melik Mirza khan by the order of these immortal state officials minted coins in the name of… After that his son Allahverdi and grandson Melik Gehreman also glorified their country.

    The fourth is Chilebord district. Its ruler was Allahqulu. His ancestors were from Maghaviz. They came and became the rulers of Chilabord and settled at vaster areas in the middle stream of the Terter river. They turned the Cheymukh tower, which had a very hard destiny, into there shelter, home and land ( Cheymukh is a brief name of Chilebord" They ruled Chilabord in the most democratic way and thus became famous. .. Nadir shah gave him a title of sultan and a gown…

    The fifth is the Tbilisi district. The ruler is Malik Usub. His ancestors came from Shirvan and stayed in Talysh village for some time. Some of them have been the rulers more than once. Later Melik Usub occupied the Gulistan tower and settled there."

    Karabakh feud lands

    Name of a land

    Arrival in Karabakh





    Goycha region



    From Zangezur (Sunik)


    Established in the 18th century



    Established in the 18th century

    From Lori province

    Gulistan (Talysh)

    Early 18th century

    From Shirvan (Nidj village of Gabala sultanate

    Thus, except for Khachyn other rulers of Karabakh and their ancestors were not the native Karabakh residents and they had moved to the region from other places. They were not Armenians, they represented former Albanian generations. Therefore, it's incorrect to justify the territorial claims of Armenian nationalists and to regard the said rulers as the followers of Armenian state structure. On the other hand, alien rulers after the capture of power in Karabakh did not manage to unite the country.

    They lived isolated and could not overcome the limits of leaders feuding with each other. Moreover, as mentioned above, none of them, except for Khachyn were original Karabakhians in period before 17th century. "The rulers represented those standing for the feudal division". The separatist centrifugal activity of the rulers hammered the process of centralization current in the khanate and in the whole country.

    Their participation in the raid on Karabakh stroke a hard blow to the independence of Karabakh khanate. Therefore, the steps taken by meliks for prevention of the separatist movements were rather a struggle with plots against the independence of Karabakh khanate.

    Melik Shahnazar was the first among the five feudal lands to recognize Panah Ali's power. That was due to the marriage of Ibragimkhalil to Melik Shahnazar's daughter Hurzat.

    After the defeat of Khachyn melik at Ulubab Ballygaya he recognized the power of Panah khan, while the hostile policy of Dizag, Chilebord and Talish lands lasted for several years. Ahmed bey Djavanshir wrote:" The Dizag ruler Yegan who collected and saved all money of neighbor provinces after a sharp resistance was killed together with some of his relatives and sons while others were turned into Islam…

    The ruler of Chilabord Allahgulu Sultan first subordinated to his power then was accused of betrayal and killed by the order of Panah Ali khan. His brother Melik Hatem Talish united with the Melik Usub and within a long period of time resisted the attacks of Panakha Ali's troops to their lands, however, after the defeat at Mardakerd village they fell back to the impregnable Chermukh tower, locating in the upper stream of the Terter river.

    After a year of staying in the tower, he had to seek refuge in foreign countries together with his family. However, he did not give up his political activity. Thus, he and his antecedents (his son Melik Medjnun) constantly attacked Karabakh…". The path of Panakh Ali's progress in overriding the feudal lands was followed by his son Ibragim khan.

    Among the Karabakh feudal lands, Melik Yesay of Dizaq, Medjnun of Chilebord and Beyleryan of Gulistan refused to subdue to Ibragim, while Melik Shahnazar of Varanda and Mirza khan of Khachyn recognized his power and joined the patriotic troops created by Ibragim.

    The allies encircled the Tug tower in 1781. Melik Yesay surrendered and the power transferred to Melik Bahtam. Soon he turned out to be a betrayer as well.

    Beginning from 1783 Russia also started to interfere with Ibragim khan's struggle against separatist feudal lords. By the help of local meliks Russia, willing to occupy South Caucasus attempted to establish a Christian state or the support for itself in Azerbaijan. At that time owing to his high diplomatic capacities Panah ali managed to assemble all hostile feudal lords in Shusha. Proving their betrayal by some documents he imprisoned them.

    Melik Medjnun was imprisoned while Melik Bahtan due to his misdemeanors was delivered to the khan of Ardebil. The ally of the feudal lords, the Catholicos of Ganjasar monastery Yohannes was caught together with his brother and punished.

    However, the prisoners of Shusha managed to escape. They ran away to Tbilisi and initiated a plot against Karabakh khanate under the support of Georgian tsar Irakli the Second (1744-1798) and Russian colonel Burnashov. The enemies, launching crusades to Karabakh khanate, neared Ganja. However, these crusades were unsuccessful due to the beginning of the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791. Ibragim khan managed to defend and preserve the integrity of independent Karabakh khanate.

    Agha Mohamed Gadjar (1742-1797), who seized power in Iran in the summer of 1795, attacked Karabakh khanate. The 33 day war of Shusha was an unfortunate one. After Shusha he moved on Tbilisi. Due to the raid of the Russian troops led by V.Zubov, Agha Mohamed Gadjar fell back. With the death of the Russian tsarina Elizabeth the Second (1764-1796) Zubov was recalled to Russia. Agha Mohamed Qadjar again attacked Karabakh, occupied Shusha yet was killed there in 1797.

    The invasive activity of Russia strengthened in the South Caucasus, including Azerbaijan in late 18th-early 19th century. In 1801 Georgia was annexed to the empire, Azerbaijan's Djar-Belokan (1803) community and Ganja khanate (1804) were occupied.

    Under such conditions Ibragim khan struck an agreement with the commander of Russian troops P.D.Sisianov (1802-1806) in Kurekchay. The agreement stipulated for Karabakh khanate to be annexed to Russia as a Muslim country-the Azerbaijani land. The Kurekchay agreement, that reflected the reality, is the most reliable document which proved that Karabakh, including its mountainous part belongs to Azerbaijan.

    Source: Yagub Mahmudov, Karim Shukurov: Garabagh - Real history, facts, documents, Baku – 2005

  • Karabakh - Azerbaijan

    Karabakh - Azerbaijan

    Karabakh is one of the ancient historical regions of Azerbaijan. The name Karabakh is a combination of the words “gara” (black, big) and “bagh” (garden, land). The word “Karabakh” as a name given by Azerbaijani people to their land first appeared in primary sources of the 7th century. 

    In dealing with the subject of Karabakh, the first question to be answered is: where is this place and which areas of Azerbaijan does it cover?  The answer to this question is especially relevant today for any understanding of the “Nagorno-Karabakh problem” created by the Armenian separatists. To answer this question we will refer first to Mirza Jamal Javanshir Garabaghli, the vizier of the Azerbaijani Karabakh khanate, who wrote in his book The History of Karabakh (1847):

    "According to the ancient history books the borders of Karabakh region are as given below: the Araz River in the south, from Khudaferin Bridge to Sinig Bridge.

    The eastern border of Karabakh is marked by the River Kura that flows into the River Araz in the village of Javad and runs into the Caspian Sea. The northern border is the River Goran that stretches from Yelizavetpol (Ganja province is meant) to the Kura river which splits and reaches the Araz at different points. In the west it is bordered by the Kushbek, Salvarti and Erikli mountains – the high Karabakh mountain range.”

    A detailed description of Karabakh’s territories and borders during the first period of  Russian occupation and colonialism is drafted on the following basis:

    1. This information was written by an official directly involved in Russia’s governance of Karabakh, in other words, the information is based on official documents;

    2. Further, this is not only grounded in reality and experience, it is also backed up by primary sources. It was not by whim that Mirza Jamal referred to history books to substantiate his position. 

    It is clear that the name “Karabakh” has long applied not just to the political-geographical area “Nagorno-Karabakh” but to the whole territory of Karabakh — its mountains and its plains. In other words, the name "Nagorno-Karabakh” is not a historical toponym, but is a name given to a part of Karabakh in the cause of separatism. Logic supports this argument: if mountainous (Nagorno) Karabakh exists, then plain and lowland Karabakh also exist. This is the reality: there are today both mountainous Karabakh and lowland Karabakh in Azerbaijan. In addition, both lowland and mountainous (Nagorno) Karabakh have been Azerbaijani homelands in all historical periods, home to the people who have the words “gara” and “bagh” in their lexicon. Hundreds of ancient and rare examples of folklore and musical treasures first appeared in Karabakh and are closely associated with this place.

    Several generations of Azerbaijani archaeologists have studied and introduced to the world’s academics the Guruchay culture (Palaeolithic period), the Leylatepe culture (Eneolithic), the Kura – Araz culture (early Bronze Age), the Uzerliktepe culture (middle Bronze Age), the Khojaly-Gedebey culture (late Bronze and early Iron Ages), as well as hundreds of historical monuments of the ancient and medieval periods.  International archaeology has long accepted these monuments as belonging to the history of the Azerbaijani people and these monuments have nothing to do with Armenian history.

    Nagorno-Karabakh lies in the centre of the western regions of the Azerbaijan Republic, part of Karabakh as a whole.  The Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region was established on the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic in July 1923, under Soviet rule. The region was 4,400 sq.km in area, or 5.1% of the total area of the Azerbaijan Republic. It included the districts of Shusha, Askeran, Hadrut, Mardakert and Martuni (the last three districts had not been so named until then) and the city of Stepanakert (which was called Khankendi until the early years of Soviet rule). Nagorno-Karabakh is an integral part of the present Azerbaijan Republic and is one of the territories to which Armenians were moved on a mass scale from 1820. Today the Autonomy and seven surrounding regions are under occupation by the Armenian Republic.

    The Nagorno-Karabakh problem is rooted in the 18th century, when Armenians were moved from the Iran Plateau and Anadolu and relocated to Karabakh, a determined policy of the Iranian political elite. The Armenians gradually increased in number and began making territorial claims on Azerbaijan. They continued their separatist activities during the Karabakh khanate and organized campaigns by external forces against it. After Russian occupation of the khanate in 1805, the relocation of Armenians there, as well as to Nakhchivan and Irevan, was intensified. In order to formalise this process some paragraphs were even appended to the Turkmenchay Treaty in 1828. The Armenians began making concrete territorial claims on Karabakh, Nakhchivan and Irevan from the beginning of the twentieth century with strong support from Iran and Russia. In pursuit of this goal, Armenians perpetrated genocide in 1918 throughout Azerbaijan. The main aim was to create a "Great Armenia, from sea to sea”. After the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918 Irevan, the historically ancient territory of Azerbaijan was ceded to the Armenians and the issue seemed to be resolved. Further, during Soviet rule Zangazur and Goycha were given to Armenia. Thus, Russia and Iran realized their aims not only to separate Azerbaijan from Turkey, but also to split Nakhchivan from Azerbaijan geographically. However, their repeated attempts to annex Karabakh to Armenia in the Soviet era were in vain.

    Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Armenians in Karabakh had already armed and they began operations there in 1988. Large-scale military operations were halted with the signing of a cease-fire in 1994, and Nagorno-Karabakh together with another seven, adjacent, regions of Azerbaijan  - Lachin, Kalbajar, Aghdam, Fizuli, Jabrayil, Gubadli and Zangilan - were occupied by Armenia. The separatist regime in Nagorno-Karabakh declared its “independence” in 1991. This “independence”, which does not comply in any way with international law, rightly remains unrecognized by any country.

    Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region of Azerbaijan

    • Territory- 4,400 sq.km
    • Population (1989)-189,085
    • Armenians- 145,450 (76.9%)
    • Azerbaijanis – 40,688 (21.5%)
    • Russians – 1,922 (1%)
    • Other nationalities –1,025 (0.6%)

    Nagorno-Karabakh and other, surrounding, regions - dates invaded

    • Nagorno-Karabakh – 1988-1992 (Shusha  –  May 08, 1992)
    • Lachin –   May 18, 1992
    • Kalbajar – April 2, 1993
    • Aghdam – July 23, 1993
    • Fizuli –     August 23, 1993
    • Jabrayil – August 23, 1993
    • Gubadli – August 31, 1993
    • Zangilan – October 29, 1993

    Victims of agression in Azerbaijan

    • Killed –  20,000
    • Injured– 50,000

    The Working Group on Assessment of the Casualties and Losses to the Occupied Territories of Azerbaijan that reports to the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Azerbaijan, has produced information that more than 800 billion dollars of damage has been caused to Azerbaijan by the Armenia-Azerbaijan, Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.

  • Historic people

    Historic people

    Moisey Kalankatli – Albanian historian (the end of VII –the begining of VIII)

    Moisey Kalankatli or Musa Dasquranci – was originally Caucasian Albanian, from Uti tribes and author of “Albanian history”. Kalankatli wrote this work of him by the order of Albanian leader Javanshir. Moisey Kalankatli noted that he was born in the village Kalankat situated in town Uti in Albania. Utis are one of the tribes whose name was taken from the town Uti. That tribe was residing in the area streching from river Ganikh to south, also in upper Karabakh, in the shores of Terter. It is designated in sources that utis lived in both sides of Kura river and in the shores of Caspian sea. One of the biggest villages Kalankat is situated in south-west of Barda, in the shores of Terter.

    Moisey Kalankatli was contemporary of notorious Albanian leader Javanshir. Especially that period was considered political and cultural recovery of Albania. Javanshir who was possesing great military capacity, pursuing witty and clever policy managed to unify and restore territory of Albania in its original area- stretching from Araz in the south, to Derbend in the north, pursued independent internal and external policy and maintained independence of Albanian church so, surely having desire to see reflection of his period on the written monument he ordered Moisey Kalankatli to write “ Albanian history”.

    Father Jabrail (VIII century)

    Father Jabrail was one of the close people of Sultan Ahmet who lived in VIII century, he and his sons owned area from mountain Ziyaret to the river Araz. He was honoured personality, was buried in his fascinating estate-on the mountain Alpasha.The length of the tomb named “Father Jabrail” in the north part of Jabrail village is 4,5 meters, width is 2,4 meters, height is 1,8 meters and the traces of graves and ancient settlements are still remaining there. According to sources Father Jabrail had sons- Mirzejan, Yarahmet, Shahvalad, Bunyad, Gurban, Xubyar, Hasan. Later tribe Jabrail was formed after his name. In The sources telling about middle ages the name of Jabrail tribes is mentioned alongside with Javanshir, Afshar. Russian empire registered 17 bloc, 443 houses, 2200 settlers in Jabrayil (1823) while enrolling population for tax collecting purpose after invasion of the region.

    Vakhtang from Xachin (XII century)

    Vaxtang is the sun of Hasan Monakh and Mamakhatun. He was married to Arzukhatun Arsruni. He inherited ruling right over all Xachin area. In 1184 Mxitar Gosh completed his well-known “Qanunname” in Vakhtang’s palace. During his ruling reconsrtuction works were carried out. One example of it was restoration of Khudaveng monastery.

    Hasan I ( XIII century)

    In the end of XII -beginning of XIII he was Khachin prince. His authority covered Upper Khachin area with its center village Zar. He was married to the daughter of Sarkis Zaxari Dafna khatun. Hasan I last recalling among historical sources belongs to 1204 year. After Hasan I’s death Dafna khatun run the country for some period. After that time branch of the leading dynasty Arranshahik ruling Upper Khachin had been called Dafna.

    Hasan Jalal (1215-1261)

    Prominent politician and public figure calling himself Albanian ruler Hasan Jalal belonging to outstanding Mehranilar generation was ruler of Khachin princedom. Existing in XIII it encompassed the most part of current Karabagh. Reighning years of Hasan Jalal are considered as a albanian reneisans. That period overlaps with economic, cultural and political recovery of the country. As an eminent example of construction works of him Ganjasar monastry, which is considered as a masterpiece of Caucasus christian architecture can be noted.

    Sari Ashig (XVII century)

    Birth and death dates of Sari Ashig who is one of the Azerbaijan ashugs of XVII century, are not known precisely. Sari Ashig was born in the village Qaradagli which existed in XVII-XIX centuries near the Gulabird village of Lachin region and situated in the right bank of river Hakari and he was buried in the area of Gulabird near the Garadagli village.

    Imaginary picture of him was depicted on his grave stone. The first information about Sari Ashig was given by Hasanali khan Garadagi. According to him, Sari Ashig was his fellow countryman and was originally from Garadagh but later moved to Gulebird village of Zangazur. Azerbaijan literature owes Hasanali khan Garadaghi for Sari Ashig’s bayati and goshmas. “Initial information about Sari Ashig was stated by Garadagi who lived in XIX century”.

    Archeologists proved that he lived in XVII century by opening his grave in 1927. Epos related to the life of Sari Ashig , “ Good and Ashug” was evolved among people. He was mostly famous for his bayatis. By throwing down the gloves to ones who were saying that writing bayatis is the business of women he wrote mostly in this genre.
    In 1993 Armenian vandals destroyed poet’s grave completely.

    Panahali khan (1693-1763)

    The founder of Karabakh khanate. Panahali khan Sarijali Javanshir was from famous Javanshir dynasty of Karabakh. He was born in 1963. He was well-known as a prominent warlord and political figure. During his ruling large -scale construction and reconstruction actions were implemented and Shahbulag castle, Asgaran fortification were constructed. But the most profound work carried out bu him was city-fortification initially called Panahabad then Shusha which was started to be built in 1750.

    Molla Panah Vagif (1717-1797)

    Vagif was born in the village Salahli near Gazakh in 1717. There is such a opinion that his ancestors were from the Bayat , the tribe from which Mahammad Fuzuli is.

    Panah was well-educated. He had good command of farsi and arabian and his knowledge covers wide range of fields such as astronomy, math, music and poetry.

    In the middle of XVIII century tensions were observed around Georgian borders and many families were moved from Gazax to Karabakh and Ganja. Vagif’s family was among those families. His family found shelter in Terterbasar village of Karabakh.

    A little time after coming to Karabakh he moved from Terterbasar to Shusha. Establishing school in Shusha he became famous among city residents as a teacher and also as a capable poet. His fame reaches Karabakh leader Ibrahimkhalil and he invites Vagif to the palace.

    It is known that Vagif lived in the palace till the end of his life. He initially acted as minister of internal affairs, later general vezir (the person involved closely in state affairs). And he gained empathy of all people thanks to his high level wisdom and knowledge.

    Vagif’s poetic activity was prominet not only among azerbaijanians but also among georgian and armenian settings. It’s obvious that for a long time Azerbaijan language had been means of communication among Caucasus nations and for that reason Vagif’s poems were prescribed not only with Azerbaijan alphabet but also with georgian and armenian alphabet. Vagif used all classical forms of eastern poetry. He wrote qazal, tacnis,muxammas, mustazad, muashshere, mushaire, masnavi and marsiya. The large part of his poetic activity encompasses poems written in genre “qoshma”. The language of those poems is so close to the live language of poplulation.

    Immediately after assassination of King Gajar, close relative of Ibrahimkhalil khan Mahammad Javanshir became leader of Karabakh khanate. Mahammad Javanshir ordered to hang him and his son Ali in 1797.

    Ibrahimkhalil khan Javanshir (1732-1806)

    Ibrahimkhalil khan – from 1758 till the collapse of khanate he was khan and lieutenant-general.
    During his time Karabakh khanate was exceedingly flourishing. Great opportunity was created for wise and intelligent people to act independently. The intellectual class consisting of scientists, culture and art professionals were emerging. Construction work in the city was expanding in a large-scale. Shusha was flourishing, khan palaces, residential buildings, fortifications were constructed and schools were built. During his governing period Aga Mahammad khan Gajar attacked Shusha twice. First assault (1795) was defeated, but in the second attack Iranians seized Shusha fortress, albeit Shah Gajar was killed that night by his serviceman. In 1806 Ibrahimkhalil khan was killed by Russian invaders.

    Gasim bey Zakir (1784-1857)

    Gasim bey Zakir was born in Shusha in 1784. He is originally from Javanshir’s generation which is famous in Kharabakh. He received his primary education in Shusha muslim school and mastered arabic and farsi languages. By having command of these languages he was able to get acquainted with the works of poetry whizes of Middle East as Firdovsi, Nizami, Sadi, Hafiz. Poet’s youth and adolocense years coincide with period of tense politi-military events in Kharabakh. Satirical poems were mainly against to tzar leaders and and their intrusive rule and orders. His excoriation was espacially directed towards ones who were unfair to poor and weak people. He has many poetical stories written in diverse themes such as “Malikzade and Shahsanam”, “ Amirzade, lover and young lover”, “Cooking of Ashig”, "About lovers", "Zövci-axar", "Tarlan va envoy", "The one who lost quarrel", "Darvish and a girl", "Impudent darvish", "Immoral qazı", "Fake Scholar”.

    The love is depicted in his poetical stories as a holy and noble feeling of person. Fables are of great significance in Zakir’s realistic activity. there are range of fables in his published “Compositions” such as “Lion, wolf and Jackal ", "Camel and Donkey", "Fox and Wolf ", "About unfaitful mates ", "Snake, Camel, Turtle", "Fox and Lion", "About devoted friends", "Turtle, Crow , Rodent , Gazelle". While writing his fables he benefited firstly from fables in folklor and famous indian masterpiece “Kalila ve Dimne”, as well as fables from classical poetry- Nizami, Jalaladdin Rumi, Fuzuli’s compositions. He died in Shusha in 1857 and was buried city cemetry called Mirza Hasan.

    Mir Mehdi Khazani (1819-1894)

    Mir Mehdi Mir Hashim Bey was born in the village Mamar of Bargushad town in Karabakh in 1819. He got his primary education from mullah. Later he studied in madrasa. Mullah Rafi bey Mirza Mahammad moved to the town Dizag by the invitation of Shikhimli. For some time he worked as a teacher in that village, then after being invited by his son-in-law he settled in village Tugh.

    He worked here as a teacher. Mir Mehdi Khazani who loved his mother tongue deeply wrote poetical composition about muslim rules in Azerbaijan language for kids and published it in 1884. Although he was living in the village, he was in close relations with literary-cultural center Shusha. At the same time he was historian. “Book of Kharabakh’s history” has the most significant place in his activity. As he mentioned in prologue of book he wrote it in original Turkish language as Mahammad bey Javanshir asked it from him. Mir Mehdi Khazani wrote book by using “History of Kharabakh” of Mirza Adigozel bey, Mirza Jamal Javanshir Kharabagi and as well as “teveraxi-qedimler”. He was poet and was writing poems with pen-name “Khazani”. Mir Mehdi Khazani died in 1894.

    Khurshidbanu Natavan (1832-1897)

    Natavan was born on 15th august of 1832 in Shusha. Khan Mehdigulu gave her daughter his mother’s name. Khurshudbanu was only child of the family, and at the same time last heir of Karabakh khanates for that reason she was called “Durru yekta” (sole pearl) in the palace , “daughter of khan” among people.

    In XIX century children of elite class were taught arabic and farsi alongside with their mother tongue, Khan’s daughter also mastered these languages and by this way perceived the rules of classic poertry. Unique books, precious transcripts of genious eastern poets tied Khurshudbanu to classic literature. Khurshudbanu Natavan was personality with blistreing capacity and foremost ideals. There were several grounds that contributed the creation of this phenomenon. One of these grounds was her origins. So Natavan was originally from both Javanshir and Ziyadoglu Gajar’s dynastis. She was outstanding identity of her time not only in Azerbaijan, she was properous for her nobelty and generocity. She assisted the poor and constructed waterpipe.

    Khurshudbanu Natavan passed away on 1st October of 1897 and was buried in cemetry “Imaret” in Agdam. There is a street, club, library and school after her. Transcripts, personal clothes and properties are kept in archive and musemums as a unique exponat. Her statue in Baku, bust in Shusha, monument ins Agdam were made.

    Mir Mohsun Navvab (1833-1918)

    Mir Mohsun Navvab was born in 1833 Haji Seyid Ahmad’s family in Shusha and didn’t leave his city till end of his life. Getting his primary education in religious school he learned arabic, farsi, turkish languages perfectly and later studied the basics of astronomy, chemistry, math and other arts in Abbas Sarijali madrasa (religious institution). Popular music tractat of him “Vuzuhul-arqam” was firstly published in 1913 in Baku. In that letter he investigates origins of various mugams, some destgah (mugam) and their names, mentioned problems such as relation of mugams with their lyrics, interrelation between singer and audience, optimal placement of them in terms of acoustics. He was the first scholar who used the term “destgah” and mentioned 6 known destgahs in Kharabakh: Rast, Mahur, Shahnaz, Rahavi or Rahab, Chahargah and Nava. His composition includes names of 82 songs and mugams sang by Kharabakh musicians. Navvab was also abled artist. His fame spread in Azerbaijan and beyond its borders when he died in 1918 in Shusha.

    Najaf bey Vazirov (1854-1926)

    Najaf bey Vazirov is the writer contributed to the develoment of drammaturgy, enrichment of its literal themes and master traits, establishment and boosting of national theatre. Assisting national intependendence movement with his public and literal activity he created tragedy genre of Azerbaijan literature, participated closely for expansion of enlightenment movement againt feodalistic-patrialistic system. Najaf bey Vazirov was born on 2nd of April in 1854 in Shusha. While studing in gymnasium acquaintance with Hasan bey Zardabi who was teaching there, had great impact on his opinions. Najaf bey Vazirov moved to Baku in 1895. After passing required exams there he attains lawyer certificate and began acting in courts. He carried on his writing activity after long time and creates classical compositions such as “Yagishdan chikhdig, yagmura dushduk” (to encounter with the problem worse than previous), “Musibeti-Fakhraddin”, “Pahlavani-zamana” (hero of the time). He was selected secretary of Baku Duma in 1903. A little time later he had been appointed as a deputy of director of education department and took part tightly with Hasan bey Zardabi in the establishment of new schools and different upbringing centers for educating people.

    1905 year revolution paved the way for prosperity of Vazirov’s litrery-public activity. As an enlightener writer he publishes his works denouncing flaws of owner-bourgeouis society in newspapers: “Hayat” (life), “Irshad”, “Taza hayat” (New life), “Achig soz” (Direct word) under pseudonym “Dervish” with “Balaca mutafarraqalar” title. At the same time he directs dram clubs and strives for progress of theatre and invent of new generation of actors.He dies on 9th July of 1926 from heart attack.

    Samad bey Mehmandarov (1855-1931)

    Samad bey Mehmandarov was artillery general of Soviet army, military minister of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, soviet military figure. Samad bey Mehmandarov was born on 16th of October in 1855 in Lankaran. Originally he is from Shusha. He got gymnasium education and enetered Konstantinovka II artillery school situated in Peterburg when he was 16 year-old. In December 1875 he was conferred rank of podporuchik and awarded with third degree "Saint Stanislav" Order. In 1890he promoted to Captain, in 1898 to lieutenant-colonel, in 1901 to colonel and in 1904 to major-general ranks. At Russian-Japanese War for great bravery S.Mehmandarov was given the rank of full general artillery in 1908.

    In the beginning of World War I he was serving around Warshaw , there were 4 regiments in the division conducted by general S.Mehmandarov. Commander of regiment S.Mehmandarov defeated army of german general Makenzo in the Lodz battle.

    In 1915 general was appointed commander of corpus. In the beginning of 1917 he was awarded with all orders of Russia and also with several military orders of England, France and Romania.

    In February 1917 when bourgeois revolution embarked S.Mehmandarov was in Caucasus. General S.Mehmandarov was in the position of Military Minister of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and managed to establish army consisting of 30 thousand soldiers in a short time. After foundation of Soviet government he continued his military activity under personal reference of Nariman Narimanov and was teaching in commanders school in 1921-1928. General Samad bey Mehmandarov rested on February 12th, 1931 in Baku.

    Jabbar Garyagdioglu (1861-1944)

    Jabbar Ismayil oglu Garyagdioglu was khananda (folk singer), composer, musician and national musician (1935). He is one of the most outstandig representatives of Azerbaijani art of khananda.

    Jabbar Garyagdioglu was born in 1861 “Seyidli” quarter of Shusha. Their house was close to the most picturesque place of the city “Jidir” plain. From his childhood he was humming songs sitting on the “Delikdash” for hours while herding sheep in “Gayabashinda”, “Girxpillakanda”, “Agziyasti kahada” with his peers. Later this humming contributed emergence of biggest khananda of the century.He has great role in creation of opera art. So that he first actor of opera stage is Garyagdioglu.

    He is great musician at the same time considerate teacher. Today in the history of Azerbaijan music his name is recalled with great reverence. The secrets of his activity are tought to young khanandas. “Shahnaz”, “Gatar”, Heyrat” are the invaluable pieces of our musical treasure.

    Ahmad Bey Agaoglu (1869-1939)

    Ahmad bey Agaoglu ( Ahmad bey Agayev) was born in 1869 in Shusha city of Azerbaijan.
    In 1888 he got acquinted with french orientalists Ernest Renan and professor James Damestete in Paris. Those years he studied in Sorbonna universities of Sankt-Peterburg and Paris. Mastering 5 languages perfectly Ahmad bey began to publish interesting articles both in local and foreign media. In 1894 he came back to Caucasus to teach french and moved to Baku. He was telling in his compositions that to obtain national salvation the progress of culture and education of society is inevitable. He was disseminating an idea of freedom of women and pointing it as the main factor of independence movement. Ahmad bey was one of the first intellectuals attaching great importance to the equality of right among men and women. In 1901 his published book “Woman in Islamic world” he proves the idea that “national development is impossible without free women”. Ideals and desires of him soon were realized. Establiehed in 1918 the first democratic republic ADR set example not only for East, but also for USA and Great Britain by giving equal voting rights to women. This noticable event made his dreams come true. Agaoglu was elected member to Transcaucasian Seim from muslim fraction and during his activity he had accomplished great deeds in prevension of armenian-muslim ethnic confrontation. After a little time as a response to the threats of armenians frightened of nationalist and social revolt ideas, he founded self-defensive organization “Difai”. At the end of World War I he was expatriated to Malta by the English.Great patriot of Azerbaijan nation Ahmad bey Agaoglu died in 1939 in Turkey.

    Bahlul Behjet (1869-1938)

    Bahlul Behjet was born in 1869 in Dondarli village of Gubadli. He got his primary education from his father, then from his father-in-law Haji Gasim Chalabi. Later he went to Shaki and continued his education in madrasa. In 1915 he was appointed gazi (major) of Zangazur by Caucasus Mufti but he was exposed to pressures and several time exiled and imprisoned. He worked as an editor in “Azerneshr”, runed investigations on folklor and took pen-name “Behjet”.

    Bahlul Behjet made substantial contributions in piling up folklor examples and publishment of them. He wrote scientific work “Nizami and Caucasus folklor”. Bahlul bey has proved with written and oral evidences that Bahlul Dananda was historic identity and Azerbaijani who lived in IX century in Tabriz and got fame among his contemporaries as ascholar and orchardman. He even stated that Bahlul discovered new kind of cherry and that kind was called “bahli” after his name as an appreciation of his. documents and anecdotes collected by him have been reserved in archives. Bahlul Behjet was exposed to repression and was shot on March 15,1938.

    Abdurrahim bey Hagverdiyev (1870-1933)

    He was born on May 17th, 1870 in the village Agbulag situated near Shusha. He got his primary education in the summerschool of Yusif bey in 1880 in Shusha, then Shusha real school (1881-1890). After leaving Tbilisi school he studied in Road Engeneers Institute of Peterburg (1891-1899). The strong enthusiasm was emerged and he wrote “Yeyersen gaz etini, gorersen lezzetini” (1892) and “Dagilan tifag” (1896). “Dagilan tifag” (1899) was published in Peterburg. After attaining higher education he came back to Shusha and organized plays. Writing his first stories (“Ata ve ogul” (Father and son), “Ayin shahidliyi” (evidence of moon) here he published them as “Iki hekayet” (Two stories). After 1905 revolt he was selected representative from Ganja gubernia to Rusian State Duma. Later he went to Peterburg (he is considered one of the first Azerbaijani Diplomats). There he collected data and materials for his new work (Aga Mahammad shah Qajar) in the state library. He was first Azerbaijani director of chorus and orchestra on January 12, 1908 when opera “Leyli ve Mejnun” was staged. He published story and felyeton (satire) in the “Molla Nasraddin” magazine with the pen-names “Jeyranali”, “Khortdan”, “hakimi-nuni-saqir”, “Laglagi”, “Mozalan”, “Supurkesaggal”. He participated closely in cultural-social life of Heshterkhan while living there (1910). Later he moved and lived in Agdam (1911-1915). He worked as a chief of monthly journal “News of Caucasus department of League of Cities” in Tbilisi (1916-1917), after February Revolution he was elected representative to Tbilisi Executive Committee and its Central Council. The same year in March he was appointed attorney to Borchali (1918). After establishment of Soviet authority in Azerbaijan he was conferred as an inspector in state theatres. He was constantly doing literary translation. He had translated priceless works from Russian, Armenian and West European literature and his works were translated into the USSR and foreign languages. He died on December 11,1933 and buried in Alley of Honor.

    Sultan bey Sultanov (1871-1955)

    Sultan bey was born in 1871 in Hajisamli town of Lachin region. He was son of Pasha bey. Initially he studied local school, later in Ganja gymnasium. After completing secondary education, he headed to Sankt-Peterburg. And entered the most famous military school- Sankt-Peterburg Military Academy, but he couldn’t graduate from this academy. Sultan bey returned back to his motherland after his father Alipasha bey Khanmurad bey oglu asked him. Since 1918 Sultan bey had been conducting military divisions in the region during armenian-muslim war and had great exclusive services in the defence of muslim villages, he devastated Andranik’s army’s basis which was sieged in Zabukh, armenian militants gathered around Garagol were defeated by him, 600 soldiers were taken as hostages, 100’s armenians who wanted to pass Iran borders were killed after operation called Sahil near the Araz river, tens of armenian countrymen were disarmed in Zangazur.

    Soviet Union established its authority in Azerbaijan after 1920. Russians were preparing new assasinations for Sultan with the help of armenians. Perceiving the complexity of situation he appealed to Azerbaijan Revolution Committee. As the response was desperate he turned to Iranian Shah. Iranian Shah recommends him to ask for help from Turkey because he was also unable to ensure safety for Sultan bey. And when Sultan bey asked Turkey for assistance in 1923, it provided two brothers with estate and safe life in Kochgoy village of Gars. Sultan bey died in 1955 the village Kochkoy around Gars in and was buried there.

    Hamida khanim Javanshir (1873-1955)

    Hamida khanim Javanshir-Mammadguluzade was born in the family of outstanding intellectual of his time Ahmed bey, in the village Kahrizli of Shuha in 1873. Hamida khanim studied in family school and mastered russian language in her teenager years. She owned broad outlook and intellect that was not peculiar for village girls of that time. Her first husband podpolkovnik Ibrahim bey Davatdarov from elite generation was kiled in the front and after losing her father Hamida khanum Javanshir was managing her estate. In 1905 he got acquainted with Mirza Jalil Mammadguluzade in Tbilisi and in two years got married with him. Their marriage was considered not right as she was from elite class. However, coping with all obstructions she stayed dedicated and self-sacrifing wife and at the same time enlighter fellow,intellectual friend, and subsidiar of “Molla Nasraddin” magazine. She spent her all riches for her husband’s activty and with sincerity and pure love, mutual respect lived with him 25 years. Hamida khanim opened school on her account in Kahrizli since 1912 and was teaching there. After the death of Mirza Jalil Hamida khanum took part actively in the public –literal life of the country and was selected member of Leage of Writers. She was translating works of her husband and put down sensitive memorials about Mirza Jalil in black and white. She died in 1955 and was buried near the grave of Mirza Jalil in Alley of Honor.

    Javad bey Malikyeganov (1878-1942)

    Javad bey, Rza bey’son was born in the village Tug of Shusha in 1878. He got his primari education in the house school of famous enlightener and historian Mir Mehdi Xazani, then left technical school. He knew rusian, farsi, german,georgian, armenian languages. In 1909 he was imprisoned and expatriated from Baku because of fighting againist Soviet authorities. In 1914 he came Baku again and worked in oil fields. In 1914 he became member of “Musavat” party and participated actively in the party’s first meeting. Malik-Yeganov was member of muslim fraction of Caucasian seim, as one of the founders of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic on May 28, 1918 he signed Constitution on Azerbaijan Independence as he was member of National Council. Javad bey Malik-Yeganov was appointed general-gubernator of Lankaran in 1919. He was combating against denikins. Malik-Yeganov was one of the organizers of Turkish Worker Conference, worked in the position of chair of Central Trade Union. On May 11, 1920 he was imprisoned, but accusation was not evidenced and he was freed on 21st of January, 1921. After April occupation he was imprisoned 6 times. With accusation that he was secret member of “Musavat” he was jailed in 1931, had been exiled for 10 years.

    Khosrov bey Sultanov (1879-1947)

    Khosrov bey Sultanov was born on May 10th, 1879 in the village Gurdgaji of Hajisanli district of Lachin region. After graduating Ganja gymnasium he got medical degree of higher school in Odessa. Khosrov bey Sultanov was one of the 26 persons who signed Constitution of ADR on behalf of Azerbaijan National Council in Tbilisi on May 28, 1918. He obtained position of military minister of ADR in the first governmet cabinet. He was member of Caucasian seim and Azerbaijan Parlaiment.

    Khosrov bey Sultanov was appointed general-gubernator of Karabakh January 15th, 1919. The same year armenian dashnaks occupied the only corridor to Karabakh - Asgaran. But on May 30 military factions of dashnak general Dron were destroyed by the soldiers led by Khosrov bey, so Khankendi and Shusha were taken back. Expatriation period of his life had began since 1923. He lived in Turkey, Iran (1926), later in France and Germany and worked in German Medical University as professor. Then Khosrov settled in Trabzon in 1936 after returning to Turkey. He passed away in 1947.

    Uzeyir Hajibeyov (1885-1948)

    Uzeyir bey Abdulhuseyn oglu Hajibeyov - reknowned worldwide composer, musicologist scholar, publicist, playwright, teacher and social figure and the father of modern Azerbaijan professional music and national opera, Honoured Art Worker (1935), USSR National Artist (1938), Laureate of Stalin Prize (1941), Laureate of “Lenin order” and “Red Banner of labor”, Academic of Academy of Sciencies Azerbaijan (1945), professor (1940), chairman of Union of Azerbaijani Composers (1938-1948), rector of Baku Academy of Music (1928-1929,1939-1948), director of Azerbaijan Art Institue of Academy of Sciencies (1945-1948). He was born in the village clerk’s family and they were 3 brothers and 2 sisters. Except Uzeyir they all were born in Shusha. Rich musical-traditions of Shusha influenced Uzeyir exclusively. His first teacher was his uncle, professional expert of Azerbaijan music Agalar bey Aliverdibeyov.

    Hajibeyov came to Baku during 1905-1907 revolution in Russia, was teacher in Bibiheybet, school “Seadet”, in 1907 he published “Hesab meseleleri” (Account issues), “Metbuatda Istifade olunan Siyasi, Huquqi, Igtisadi ve Esgeri sozlerin Turki-rusi ve rusi-turki lugeti” (Dictionary of political, economic, military words used in media). He embarked on his activity with publicisim. He published many articles, satires concerning critical public-political, enlightment issues of that time. Uzeyir bey is the composer who created strong turn in Azerbaijan music. Until the begining of 19th century he enriched Azerbaijan folklor music with Western composition achievements,kinds and jenres, defined future perpectives of Eastern and Azerbaijan music, and its estetic principles.

    Opera “Leyli ve Mejnun” staged on January 12, 1908 in the theatre of Haji Zeynalabdin Tagiyev in Baku, was the foundation of first opera not only in Azerbaijan but also in all Eastern world. Hajibeyov wrote “Sheykh Senan” (1909), “Rustam and Sohrab” (1910), “Shah Abbas and Khurshid banu” (1912), “ Asli and Karam” (1912), “Harun and Leyla” (1915) mugam operas based on folk epos and legends, motives of “Shahname” written by Firdovsi. He continued stylic traits and estetic principles of “Leyli and Mejnun” in his subsequent operas. Hajibeyov was also outstanding musicologist scholar. He is founder of modern Azerbaijan scientific music art and had many articles, researches about music. Musical comedy “Arshin mal alan” ("The Cloth Peddler") is translated into English, German, Chinese, Arabic, Persian, Polish, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Georgian.

    Bulbul (1897-1961)

    Mammadov Murtuza Mashadi Rza oglu (Bulbul) Azerbaijani opera singer, professional singer of tesnifs, researcher of folk music, founder of Azerbaijan professional vocal art, national worker of USSR, Laureate of Stalin Prize. The name Bulbul was given to him by people for having extremely fascinating voice. Bulbul was born on June 22,1897 near Shusha, currently it is the south part of Khankendi – Khanbagi. He had started theatrical activity since 1916. Bulbul was vocalist of Azerbaijan State Acdemic Opera and Ballet Theatre since 1920. In the first years of his activity he performed in operas of Uzeyir Hajibeyov such as “Leyli and Mejnun” (Ibn Salam), “Asli and Kerem” (Kerem), and Zulfugar Hajibeyov’s opera called Ashig Garib ( Garib).

    He graduated from Baku Music Academy in 1927. To continue his education he went to Milan. He graduated Milan Academy in 1931. Later he returned to Azerbaijan and taught lessons in Azerbaijan Music Academy. In 1938 he was granted with name National Artist of USSR. He became professor in 1940. Bulbul was laureate of USSR State Prize. He was elected deputy of USSR Supreme Soviet. He was awarded twice USSR’s “Lenin order”, 2 “Red Banner of Labor”, “Order of Honor”, and “Order of Garibaldi” of Italy. He died on September 26th, 1961 in Baku.

    Yagub Guliyev (1900-1942)

    Yagub Allahgulu oglu Guliyev was born on January 25, 1900 in Shusha. In December, 1942 fighting bravely in the frontline of the first division general-major Yagub Guliyev was severely wounded in the battles around Stalingrad. After his death Yagub Guliyev was granted “ Order of Lenin”. Deputy of corpus commander of cavalry Yagub Allahgulu oglu Guliyev distributed tremendous braveness in devastating tank army of 222nd cavalry feldmarshal Manshteyn.

    Suleyman Rahimov (1900-1983)

    Suleyman Rahimov was born in October, 1900 in the village Eyin of Gubadli region. He got his primary education in russian two-year school. Later he left college and graduated higher institution. He started to teach since 1921 in the village Khanlig. In autumn of 1928 he came Baku and here he studied in history faculty of BSU. His litreray activity began from 1930 and first work is called “Shamo”. Despite this he had been workin on this novel for 50 years and made additions. Suleyman Rahimov had been chairman of Union of Azerbaijan Writers in 1939-1940, 1944-1946 and 1954-1958. He worked in positions such as deputy chair of the Bureau of Propaganda and Agitation of Central Committee of Azerbaijan Communist Party (1941-1944), chairman of the Committee of culture -education affairs under the Soviet of Ministers (1945-1958).

    He was awarded with “Gizil Gelem” (Golden pen) prize from Union of Azerbaijan Journalists in 1972. His other prizes include 3 times “Order of Lenin” (1946,1970,1975), “Red Banner of Labor” (1959), “Order of Honor (1942) and so on. In 1960 he received title “National writer”, in 1975 “ Hero of socialist Labor”. He died on October 11, 1983.

    Khan Shushinski (1901-1979)

    Khan Shushinski was born on August 20, 1901 in Shusha. He was given this name for his amazing performance “Kurd-Shahnaz” mugam with the way of Abdulhasan khan when he was 16 years old in the meeting where he participated with his master Islam Abdullayev.

    In 1920 Khan Shushinski enlarged his singing performance in Baku. “Mahur-Hindi”, “Bayati-Qajar”, “Gatar” mugams, “Garabakh shikestesi”, “Arazbari”, “Heyrati” mugams,also folk music are great importance of his life.

    He was singing folk songs with great enthusiasm and adding new coloures to them. In 1934, Khan Shushinski got 1st place prize in 1st Art Olympiad of Caucasian nations held in Tbilisi. In 1960 he established “Mugam studio” attached to Azerbaijan State Philarmony and shared secrets of mugam with young khanandas (mugam singer)

    He also was teacher in Azerbaijan State Music School and created new generation of khanandas. People knew his songs such as “Gamarim”, “Shushanin daglari” by heart. Khan Shushinski died on May 18, 1979.

    Latif Karimov (1906-1991)
    Latif Karimov was born in 1906 in the city Shusha of Azerbaijan. In 1912 his family moved to Meshed, Iran. His love to carpet art made him come to the workshop of Mirza Alakbar Huseynzade. Young Latif got acquainted with famous carpet centers such as Tabriz, Ardabil, and benefited from masters about weaveing. Latif Karimov working since 1928 as an instructor in “ Kharabakhxalcha” , in Shusha , learned the key points of this art in different regions. Since 1930 because he was carpet expert, he began working as an artist-instuctor in the Union of “Azerbaijankhalcha”.

    He made great contributions to the opening of first carpet schools in Baku and Guba (1932-1936). Latif Karimov worked not only in the field of carpet art, but also in other fields of decorativ applied art. He collected various compositions and ornaments of different kinds of Azerbaijan carpets belonging to thousand years before. So by this way he created colourful reproduction of more than 150 types of fleecy and flat carpets from Guba, Shirvan, Baku, Gazakh, Ganja, Garabakh, Tabriz and Borchali. Latif Karimov died in Baku in 1991.

    Niyazi (1912-1984)

    Niyazi Zulfuqar oglu Tagizade-Hajibayov was born on August 20, 1912 in Tbilisi , in the family of famous composer of his time Zulfuqar Hajibeyov. He is originally from Shusha. He got his basic education in Baku Music College, but for continuing his education he went to Moscow and Leningrad. Niyazi is the author of opera “Khosrov and Shirin” (1942), ballet “Chitra” (1961), “Zagatala suitasi” (1934), “Gaytagi” (1939),” Concert waltz”, “Rast” simphonic mugam” (1949), opera kantata “In 1920”, “ Dance” suita for orkestra, ballet “ Chitra” based on Indian writer Tagor’s compositions and other works. Niyazi prepared new versions of Z.Hajibeyli’s “Ashig Garib”, U.Hajibeyli’s “Cloth peddler”, worked on folk songs (“Khumar oldum”,” Garagile”,”Ay beri bax”,”Kuchelere su sepmishem”) and made them to be perfomed with orkestra. In 1935 “Rast” and “Shur” mugams were written down.

    Niyazi wrote his “Zagatala suita” in 1934, and completed symphony “Heroism” symphony consisting of 2 parts in 1944. Niyazi is a composer of first symphonic pieces of music and he contributed to the creation and development of national symphonism. In 1951-1952 he worked as a conductor in Azerbaijan State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet and was awarded with USSR State Prize. Formation of national conductor school in Azerbaijan is closely connected with Niyazi . In 1959 he was granted with the name National Artist of USSR, and in 1961 he was appointed general conductor of Opera and Ballet theatre in Leningrad after name S.M.Kirov. To conduct one of the most famous theatres of USSR reveals that he was prominent music art figure. Well-known artists D.Shostakovich, Sh.G.Sharayev, K.Sekki, B.Tarjan, V.Dobiash appreciated Niyazi highly, later he came back to Azerbaijan and was appointed chairman and chief conductor of State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet. “Concert Waltz”, “Concert” for piano and orkestra are considered classical pieces of music. He is composer of songs such as “Tabrizim”,”Daglar gizi” (daughter of mountains), “ Vatan hagginda mahni” (song about motherland),” Arzu”. Niyazi composed pieces of music to the plays: “Dagilan tiphag” by A.Hagverdiyev, “Almas” by J.Jabbarli, “Vagif” by S.Vugun, “Polad gartal” (steel eagle) by Korneychuk and also to the films such as “Almas”, “Kandliler”, “Phatali khan”. Niyazi died on August 2th, 1984 in Baku.

    Rashid Behbudov (1915-1989)

    Rashid Behbudov was born in the family of Majid Behbudali oglu on December 14, 1915. He is originally from Shusha.From his childhood he sang in school chorus and Rashid entered Railway College in 1933.

    In the army he was vocalist of army’s ensemble and after the army he was singing in one pop group of Tbilisi. At the end of 1943 he got suggestion to perform main character in “Arshin mal alan” (Cloth Peddler) film based on the motives of U.Hajibeyov’s operetta. In 1945 film was screened and got fame in a short period of time not only in Azerbaijan, but in all Soviet Union countries. Rashid Behbudov was awarded with “Stalin Prize” in 1946 for the performance of “Asgar” role in that film.

    He was soloist of Azerbaijan State Philarmony In 1946-1956, in 1953-1960 with some breaks was soloist of Azerbaijan State Theatre of Opera and Ballet after M.F.Akhundov, in 1957 -1959 worked as an organizer and chairman of Azerbaijan State Concert Ensemble. Since 1966 he organized Azerbaijan State Song Theatre which combines music, pop, jaz, ballet, pantomim and other genres together and was soloist and director till the end of his life.

    In 1959 “National Artist of USSR”, in 1980 “Hero of Sociolist Labor” titlles were given to him. He was granted with “Lenin order”,” Red banner of Labor”, “Friendship of Nations “ orders and prizes of different foreign countries. Genious musician died in Moscow on June 9,1989.

    Avaz Verdiyev (1916-1945)

    Avaz Verdiyev was born in the village of Gushchu of the region Lachin in 1916. When he was 20 years old he went to Baku and worked there in machine-building fabric while he was studying in the schools of young workmen.In 1938 he was called to Soviet Army and fought in USSR –Finland war (1939-1940).

    In 1940 he was demobilized from army and returning to Baku he continued to work in the same fabric. With the breaking of the World War II , in June 1941, again he was called to the army, was wounded severely in the battles then after recovery turned back to the front. He also participated in the battles for liberating Ukraine and Poland.

    He was granted with the medal “Hero of Soviet Union” on September 23rd 1944 and “ Golden star” ,“Lenin order” for the heroism he demonstrated in the battle for Stashuv city of Poland on August 2, 1944. He got wounded in next battles and died on May 1, 1945. Avaz Verdiyev was buried in the city Boleslaves of Poland.

    Jamil Ahmedov

    He was born in the center of Jabrayil and joined military service in 1942. After graduating military school he attains lieutenant rank and combated bravely in the battles for liberating Belarussia.

    Faction conducted by commander and Quardiya lieutenant Jamil Ahmedov succeeded to cross river Tremla and to keep the army’s position till the other divisiones came. Because of obtaining victory of that operation he was awarded with Hero of Soviet Union. After 2 months he died in Poland on September 2, 1944 and was buried in the cemetery for Soviet militants in Warsaw.

    Jalal Bargushad (1924-1996)

    Jalal Bargushad was born in the village Gazyan of Gubadli region on June 22,1924. He got his secondary education in young-workmen school in Gubadli, participated in World War II, and was released after being injuried in the battle (1943). Later he worked in Internal Affairs department of Gubadli as a chair of VAQ (1943-1946). His first poem “ Janub taydan esen meh” (Wind from the south) was published in “Avangard” newspaper in Gubadli.

    He graduated from journalism department of philology faculty Azerbaijan State University. He had worked in Azerbaijan State Television and Radio Programs Company in the position of general editor since 1958. Based on his plot televisions movies are screened such as “Choban Boran”, “Goy gol”, “Suren Adamyan”. “Torpagin etri”, “Chinar yarpagi”. His works were published in mass publication: “Babek” in persian language in Tehran (1984), “Gachag Nabi” in Istanbul in Turkish language. For his accomplishments he was conferred order “World War II” (1986) and prizes. He died on June 9, 1996.

    Khudu Mammadov (1927-1988)

    Khudu Surkhay oglu Mammadov was born in the village Merzili of region Agdam on December 14, 1927. Azerbaijani scholar was awarded with titles:“Doctor of Geology-minerology Sciences” in 1970 and “Professor” in 1973. Khudu Mammadov was selected correspondent member of Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences in 1976.

    Since 1957 he had been working in the position of chair of chemistry laboratory of inorganic Physics Chemistry Institute in Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences.

    He defined structures of several silicate combinations, revealed crystal chemical bonds among those combinations and borats, carbonates, transistors, perceived the molecular and crystal structures of more than 50 organic ligand complex and used in his research different kinds of methods such as electrography, roentgen –spectral analysis and hydrothermal syntez. He made great contributions to preparation of new highly specialized professionals. He was conferred to “Honor order” and other medals.
    Khudu Mammadov died in Baku on October 15, 1988.

    Valeh Barshadli (1927-1999)

    Valeh Barshadli was born in the village Eyvazli of region Gubadli on July 6, 1927. In his 14 he joined army voluntarily and graduated from Baku Zenith Artillery School military school and Red Bannered Kiev self-propelled artillery school when he was 18 years old. At the age of 50 he was first Azerbaijani he got general-lieutenant rank in soviet army.

    In 1992 he was first Minister of Defense of Independent Azerbaijan and first time in the history of Azerbaijan he was a chief of headquarters implemented Goranboy and Agdere operations successfully.

    Valeh Barshadli had served in USSR forces for 43 years and was promoted from position commander of regiment to the position of deputy of one of the soviet armies situated in Germany Democratic Republic. He died on May 15, 1999 and his grave is in the Alley of Honor.

    Arif Babayev (1938)

    Arif Imran oglu Babayev was born in the village Sarihajili near the Agdam on May 20, 1938. Khananda was granted with orders such as “National Artist” (1988), ”Professor” (1996),”Order of Glory” (1998) and “Istiglal” (2008). Ariph Babayev is one of the eminent representatives of Karabakh Khananda school.

    He graduated from the State Culture and Art Institute (1962). In 1982 he began to teach in Secondary Specialized School after Bulbul. Later in 1984 he started to give mugam lessons in Azerbaijan State Academy of Music. He was invited to be soloist in Azerbaijan State Philarmony, Azerbaijan State Theatre of Opera and Ballet and performed many memorable roles such as Mejnun,Kerem, ( U.Hajibeyov-“Leyli and Mejnun”, “ Asli and Karam”), Ashig Garib (Z.Hajibeyov –“Ashig Garib”), Jamal (Sh.Akhundova-“ Galin gayasi”)

    Mugams – “Shur”, “Seygah” and “Arazbari” , “Karabakh shikestesi” riddles are very special in his activity. Particularly, he performed mugam “Seygah” in a very unique way.

    He was conferred the first “Mugam Professor” title in 1990. National Artist Ariph Babayev at the moment is chair of mugam department in Baku Music Academy.

    Mahammad Asadov (1941-1991)

    Mahammad Nabi oglu Asadov was born in the village Baharli of Zangilan region on December 5,1941. He left secondary school in the town Mnchivan of Zangilan region in 1958. The same year entered Baku Statistics College. In 1960 he graduated from the college and began working as an inspector in Zangilan. In 1965 he entered “Finance and Credit” faculty of Azerbaijan State University after S.M.Kirov. In 1973-1975 he was appointed head of industry department of Sumgayit City Party Committee, in 1975 head of Organization department. In 1978 Mahammad Asadov was sent to work as a head of Executive Committee of Aghsu. In 1980 he was sent to Moscow Security Academy. In 1982 he graduated from academy with red diploma and worked in Azerbaijan Security Ministry as an executive. In 1983-1986 he worked as first secretary of Party Committee of Beyleqan. In 1988-1989 acted as a first secretary of Party Committee of Agdash. In 1989-1990 he continued his activity in Party Committee of Guba as a first Secretary.

    Mahammad Asadov was appointed as a minister of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan in May,1990. While working in that position he spent his time in Karabakh.

    On November 5th ,1990 he was given general-major status. Till the November of 1991 he had worked in the position of Minister of Internal Affairs. And for braveness he distributed he was appointed as an advisor.

    Mahammad Asadov flied to Agdam with officials on November 20th, 1991 by helicopter and helicopter got shot on the sky of Garakand by Armenians. Mahammad Nabi ogly Asadov was killed brutally in the struggle for integrity of our lands and liberty of our nation.

    Shirin Mirzayev (1947-1992)

    Originally from the village Mirzalar of Shusha Shirin Mirzayev was born on January 5th , 1947 in Khankandi. After leaving multinational secondary school after Nizami he joined army. For some period he served in regiment of Internal Troops then in 1967 he entered Supreme Political Military School in Leningrad and in 1971 he was sent to Iravan after graduating military school successfully. After 5 years serving there he came back Baku. In 1988 he studied in Military Political Academy, spent his 15 years in Internal Troops division. Love to Motherland and aspiration to serve made him go to Agdam in 1991. And exactly that time country was in need of professional militants. In spite of all barriers and pursuits colonel -lieutenant created first self-protective battalion in our republic with great difficulties. It was very important step for that time. In May of 1992 division consisting of 3 corps, Sh.Mirzayev was implementing both duties such as military commissar and commander of division successfully. On March 28th ,1992 as a result of Shirin Mirzayev’s and his supporters’ attempts first corp in the republic was established and Shirin Vali oglu Mirzayev was selected commander of it. He died on June 18th, 1992 in mine zone during the operation made in the direction of Sirkhavand. After his death he was conferred with status “National hero of Azerbaijan”.

    Shahlar Shukurov (1952-1990)

    Shahlar Shukurov was born on May 17th, 1952 in the village Zulfuqarli of Kalbajar. After leaving school he entered to Agriculture Institute of Azerbaijan. In 1972 he completed his higher education and was appealed to military service. After releasing from army he was working in Internal Affairs Department of Ujar region. In 1986 he graduated from Supreme polis Academy of Rostov. Shahlar got major status while he was in the position of deputy of chair in Zardab region. He frequently was going fighting zones and attending battles for integrity of lands. On July 11th, 1990 car chain was exposed to attack by Armenian invaders and Shahlar combated till his last breath and died by hero’s death. Shukurov Shahlar Evez oglu was granted with “ National Hero of Azerbaijan” title by the order #264 of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan dated on 8 October, 1992. He was buried in the village Zulfuqarli of Kalbajar region.There is street in Zardab region after him. And one of the schools is after Shahlar Shukurov there.

    Alif Hajiyev (1953-1992)

    He was born on June 24th, 1953 in Khojali. In 1970 he left the school and mastered driving profession in Khankendi. In 1971 he was called to army. He was in military service in Minsk. In 1973 he was released from army and worked as a driver in Auto-transportation Institution of Khankendi. He worked in the positions in the Internal Affairs Ministry of Belarussia and Azerbaijan USSR Kharabakh Republic in 1974-1984. In 1976 he entered Secondary Specialized Police School after Phrunze of USSR Internal Affairs Ministry. In 1979 he left school and continued his education in Academy of Internal Affairs Ministry of USSR in 1981. He had tried to declose secret nationalist center while he was working in Nagorno Kharabakh. And for that reason Armenian nationalist were allegedly accusing him and was imprisoned with 10 years sentence. In 1987 he was released, and the sentence was reduced till 6 years. Then he got amnesty.

    In 1990 A.Hajiyev returned to Khojali and continued combat against Armenian militants with his activity in National Aid Committee to Kharabakh in organization Committee of Upper Kharabakh. He was again in Internal Affairs Authorities in December, 1990 and was appointed to the department of Khojali airport line. At the same time he became kommendant of Khojali Airport. There was great threat over the old Khojali. Most people also A.Hajiyev spotted this. In the end, that day came. On 25th of 1992 Khojali people rejected the warning of Armenians about leaving the village and expected assistance from capital. Aliph and his group was fighting against russian militants and armenian troops till the 5 a.m. Combats were among unequal forces. He showed great braveness in those battles and rescued civil population and took them to safe place near village Shelli of Agdam. Then he returned back and attended again the battle. The warlord died in the result of the bullet hit him when changing charger of automat. Alif became martyr during the Khojali war in Kharabakh land. He was granted with title “National Hero of Azerbaijan” after death.

    Aliyar Aliyev (1957-1992)

    Aliyar Aliyev was born on December 14th, 1957 in the village of Gazyan of Gubadli. He graduated the Azerbaijan State Sport Institute. After completing military service Saransk State University invited him to work as specialist teacher on sport. He had worked there for 2 years. Regarding death of his father he returned to the village and began to work as a teacher, and trainer of the region department of “Mehsul” volunteer sport community.

    In a short time his organization promoted him to the chair of region department of Trade Union Volunteer Sports Community. He several times was winner of Republic, inter-union and international competitions on classical wrestling. With the leadership of him 8 people became champion of Republic and USSR competitions and 1 was selected to the national Olympic team.

    When the Kharabakh war broke Aliyar Aliyev join war voluntarily. And he participated in the war not only as a militant but also organiser of military work. Initially, he worked in the position of commander of secret service, later he was appointed the deputy of commander of equipment department. Since 1992 he had been commander of division. He several times showed courage in the devastation of enemy’s manpower. As a soldier the his main peculiar trait was striving to fight in the worst battles. When Aliyar Aliyev was joining battles the soldiers around him became stimulated to combat bravely.

    His last battle happened on October 3rd,1992 in 2 kilometers far from Lachin. Commander of division Aliyar Aliyev and his driver Alisadet Agayev died by hero’s death. After his death Aliyar was conferred “National Hero of Azerbaijan” status.

    Pahlivan Farzaliyev (1958-1992)

    Was born in the village Gobu Dilagarda of Fuzuli region on September 7th, 1958. After completing 8th form in that village he entered Agricultural College of Shusha. He was engaged in sport and became champion in the competition held in Shusha. He was called to army in 1979. He graduated from Orenburg Technical University in 1986.

    As crew commander of BTR he was fighting for protection of villages in the border. Thanks to his heroism one armenian division and one BTR was destroyed in the Khalaphsha village. On April 11th, 1992 his last battle occured. Pahlivan was married and he had 2 sons and a daughter.

    Regarding to the order #264 dated on October 8th, 1992 by the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan he was granted the status “National Hero of Azerbaijan” after his death. He was buried in the village Goby Dilagarda of Fuzuli region. One town in Baku is named after him.

    Ramiz Gambarov (1962-1992) 

    Ramiz Gambarov was born on July 2nd, 1962 in Shusha. In 1979 he left the secondary school of Shusha named after H.Hajiyev. In 1980 he was called to army, in 1982 he was released and came back to Shusha. In 1986 he entered Construction Engineering Institute of Azerbaijan. But he could not finish his education. Kharabakh war broke by armenian agressors made thousands of men including Ramiz to stand for motherland’s protection. Ramiz joined national movement in 1988. In 1992, he established voluntary self-protective battalion and became head of it. His battalion fought bravely in the battles for protection of city Shusha, Karkijahan, Kosalar, Nabilar, Gaybali, Malibayli, Gushchular, Goytala villages. On April 29th, 1992 when armanian invaders attacked Kosalar and Karkijahan villages, his division began to fight and brave commander was wounded in the battle. In a day, on April 30, 1992 he died. 

    Ogtay Gulaliyev (1962-1992)

    Ogtay Gulaliyev was born on November 10th, 1962 in the village of Khachinyali of Lachin region. After leaving school in 1982, he was called to army. In 1984 he entered Baku branch of Cooperative Institute of Poltava. He was working in Police organs during the tough period of Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict and he took part in the operations against Armenians. During the operation called “Dashalti” ended with failure and his military group was besieged but he managed to secure those 80 soldiers. Later near the village Pirjahan he was wounded severely and was back to the front for treatment. His Operation plan for getting back Lachin corridor on September 19th, 1992 was implemented successfully and Gorush-Shusha road was taken under observation. However, enemy succeeded to occupy lands again and forces of Ogtay Gulaliyev were besieged. Though he achieved to secure his soldiers he died by hero’s death in those battles. After death he was granted the name “National Hero of Azerbaijan”.

    Shikar Aslanov (1970-1992)

    Shikar Aslanov was born in the village Suleymanli of Jabrail on June 10th,1970. He got his primary education here and left school in 1987. In 1988 he was called to Soviet military service. In 1990 he returned to motherland and was admitted to patrol service of Internal Affairs Ministry. Shikar headed to the front when Armenian aggressors began to occupy our country. 

    In 1992, he professionally quenched fire spots of the enemy during the battles happened in Khojavand.

    On July 2nd, 1992 during operation he was shot by sniper, although he was carried to the hospital, it was impossible to save his life and gallant soldier of our country died. He was single.

    Shikar was buried in the village Suleymanli.

    After his death Aslanov Shikar Davud oglu was granted with the title “National Hero of Azerbaijan” by the order #264 dated on October 8, 1992, of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

  • Karabakh conflict

    Karabakh conflict

    The present-day stage of the Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict began at the end of 1987 with the attacks on the Azerbaijanis in Khankandi (during the Soviet period – Stepanakert) and Armenia resulted in a flood of Azerbaijani refugees and internally displaced persons. 

    On 20 February 1988, the representatives of the Armenian community at the session of the Soviet of People's Deputies of the NKAO adopted a decision to send a petition to the Supreme Soviets of the Azerbaijan SSR and the Armenian SSR for the transfer of the NKAO from the Azerbaijan SSR to the Armenian SSR. 

    On 22 February 1988, near the town of Asgaran on the Khankandi-Aghdam highway, the Armenians opened fire on a peaceful demonstration by the Azerbaijanis protesting against the above-mentioned decision of the Soviet of People's Deputies of the NKAO. Two Azerbaijani youths lost their lives in consequence, becoming the first victims of the conflict. 

    On 26-28 February 1988, twenty-six Armenians and Azerbaijanis were killed as a result of the disturbances in Sumgait. It is notable that one of the leading figures in these events was Edward Grigorian, an Armenian and native of Sumgait, who was directly involved in the killings and violence against the Armenians and the pogroms in the Armenian neighborhoods. By decision of the Criminal Division of the Supreme Court of the Azerbaijan SSR dated 22 December 1989, Grigorian was sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment. The Court found Grigorian to be one of the organizers of the unrest and massacres. Depositions by witnesses and victims show that he had a list of flats inhabited by the Armenians and together with three other Armenians, called for reprisals against the Armenians, in which he took part personally. His victims (all Armenians) identified Grigorian as one of the organizers and active figures in the violence. In fact, events in Sumgait being necessary to the Armenian leadership as a mean of launching an extensive anti Azerbaijani campaign and justifying the ensuing aggressive actions against Azerbaijan had been planned and prepared in advance.

    During 1988-1989 the Azerbaijanis were forced to leave Armenia. In the course of mass deportation at least 216 Azerbaijanis were killed and 1,154 people were wounded. The refugees from Armenia — eventually numbering approximately 200,000 people — began to arrive in Azerbaijan. 

    On 23 September 1989, The Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR adopted the Constitutional Law “On Sovereignty of the Azerbaijan SSR,” 5th provision of which provided, inter alia, “that sovereignty of the Azerbaijan SSR shall cover the whole its territory, including Azerbaijan's integral parts – Nakhchyvan ASSR and NKAO”, and that “the borders of the Azerbaijan SSR with other Union Republics might be altered only by mutual agreement of republics concerned.”

    On 1 December 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the Armenia SSR adopted a resolution on the re-unification of the Armenian SSR and Nagorno-Karabakh. 

    On 10 January 1990, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted the Resolution “On incompatibility of the acts of the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR concerning Nagorno-Karabakh with the Constitution of the USSR”, where it was stated the unlawfulness of the unification of the Armenian SSR and Nagorno-Karabakh without the consent of the Azerbaijan SSR.

    On 20 January 1990, with the approval of the Soviet leadership under Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet army units were dispatched to Baku. Their reprisals, which were conducted with uncommon savagery, left hundreds of innocent Azerbaijani citizens dead and wounded. 

    In 1991, the central law-enforcement agencies of the then USSR apprehended dozens of the Armenian armed groups that operated outside Nagorno-Karabakh. Thus, Chaykand village of the Khanlar district of Azerbaijan was turned by the Armenian armed groups into a criminal hub from which they bombed and shelled surrounding villages and roads, terrorizing the local Azerbaijani population. From 1989 to 1991, in Chaykand and adjacent areas only 54 people fell victim to the Armenian armed groups. In 1992, Azerbaijan regained its control over Goranboy district.

    On 30 August 1991, the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan, having regard to the Constitutional Law of 23 September 1989, declared the restoration of state independence established in 1918 by the ADR.

    On 2 September 1991, the joint session of the Nagorno-Karabakh regional and Shaumian district Soviet of People's Deputies declared the establishment of “the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic” within the borders of the NKAO and Shaumian district of Azerbaijan.

    The Constitutional Act “On State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan”, adopted on 18 October 1991, established political and economical foundations of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

    On 26 November 1991, the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan adopted a Law “On the Abolition of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of the Republic of Azerbaijan”.

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    At the end of 1991 and the beginning of 1992 the conflict turned into a military phase. Taking advantage of the political instability as a result of the dissolution of the Soviet Union and internal squabbles in Azerbaijan, Armenia initiated combat operations in Nagorno-Karabakh helped with external military assistance. 

    In February 1992, an unprecedented genocide was committed against the Azerbaijani population in the town of Khojaly. This bloody tragedy, which became known as the Khojaly genocide, involved the extermination or the capture of thousands of Azerbaijanis; the town was razed to the ground. Over the night from 25 to 26 February 1992 the Armenian armed forces with the help of the infantry guards regiment № 366 of the former USSR implemented the seizure of Khojaly. The inhabitants of Khojaly remained in the town before the tragic night (about 2,500 people) tried to leave their houses after the beginning of the assault in the hope to find the way to the nearest place populated by the Azerbaijanis. But these plans have failed. Invaders destroyed Khojaly and with particular brutality implemented carnage over its peaceful population. 

    Brutal annihilation of hundreds of defenseless inhabitants of Khojaly was one of the most heinous crimes during the armed conflict in and around the Nagorno-Karabakh region of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The Armenian armed forces and foreign military units spared virtually none of those who had been unable to flee Khojaly and the surrounding area. As a result, 613 persons were killed, including 106 women, 63 children and 70 elderly people. 1,275 inhabitants were taken hostage, while the fate of 150 persons remains unknown to this day. In the course of the tragedy 487 inhabitants of Khojaly were severely maimed, including 76 children not yet of age. 6 families were completely wiped out, 26 children lost both parents, and 130 children one of their parents. Of those who perished, 56 persons were killed with especial cruelty: by burning alive, scalping, beheading, gouging out of eyes, and bayoneting of pregnant women in the abdomen.

    Armenian officials deny their responsibility for the crimes committed during the conflict, including against the population of Khojaly, airily falsifying facts and sharing their own interpretations of them, which deviate not only from reality but also from elementary logic. Nevertheless, even the subtlest propaganda will never manage to disprove the facts that speak of a situation diametrically opposite to that represented by the Armenian side.

    Apart from the considerable information in possession of the law-enforcement agencies of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the responsibility of Armenia is documented also by numerous independent sources and eyewitnesses of this tragedy as well as is acknowledged by the direct perpetrators of the genocide.

    Thus, for example, Markar Melkonian, brother of the well-known international terrorist Monte Melkonian, while considering what has happened in Khojaly simply as a consequence of “discipline problems” and “insubordination” among Armenian military units, testified the following:

    At about 11:00 p.m. the night before, some 2,000 Armenian fighters had advanced through the high grass on three sides of Khojaly, forcing the residents out through the open side to the east. By the morning of February 26, the refugees had made it to the eastern cusp of Mountainous Karabagh and had begun working their way downhill, toward safety in the Azeri city of Agdam, about six miles away. There, in the hillocks and within sight of safety, Mountainous Karabagh soldiers had chased them down. “They just shot and shot,” a refugee woman, Raisa Aslanova, testified to a human Rights Watch investigator. The Armenian fighters had then unsheathed the knives they had carried on their hips for so long, and began stabbing.

    Now, the only sound was the wind whistling through dry grass, a wind that was too early yet to blow away the stench of corpses.

    Monte crunched over the grass where women and girls lay scattered like broken dolls. “No discipline”, he muttered. He knew the significance of the day's date: it was the run-up to the fourth anniversary of the anti-Armenian pogrom in the city of Sumgait. Khojaly had been a strategic goal, but it had also been an act of revenge. 

    In his book “Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through peace and war”, the British journalist Thomas de Waal makes references to words of the Armenian militaries. Thus, “[a]n Armenian police officer, Major Valery Babayan, suggested revenge as a motive. He told the American reporter Paul Quinn-Judge that many of the fighters who had taken part in the Khojaly attack “originally came from Sumgait and places like that”. 

    But the most important was that the recently elected President of Armenia Serzh Sargsyan said of what had had happened:

    Before Khojaly, the Azerbaijanis thought that they were joking with us, they thought that the Armenians were people who could not raise their hand against the civilian population. We were able to break that [stereotype]. And that's what happened. And we should also take into account that amongst those boys were people who had fled from Baku and Sumgait.

    As Thomas de Waal sums up, “Sargsyan's account throws a different light on the worst massacre of the Karabakh war, suggesting that the killings may, at least in part, have been a deliberate act o mass killing as intimidation”. 

    The facts mentioned above confirm that the intentional slaughter of the Khojaly town civilians on 25-26 February 1992, including children, elderly and women, was directed at heir mass extermination only because they were Azerbaijanis. The Khojaly town was chosen as a stage for further occupation and ethnic cleansing of Azerbaijani territories, striking terror into the hearts of people and creating panic and fear before the horrifying genocide.

    In May 1992, Shusha, the Azerbaijani-populated administrative centre of the region within Nagorno-Karabakh and Lachyn, the region situated between Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh, were occupied. In 1993, Armenian armed forces captured another six regions of Azerbaijan around Nagorno-Karabakh: Kalbajar, Aghdam, Fuzuli, Jabrayil, Gubadly and Zangilan.

    Contrary to numerous statements of the official Yerevan that Armenia is not directly involved into the conflict with Azerbaijan, there are indisputable proofs, which testify against such allegations and argue for the direct military aggression of the Republic of Armenia against a sovereign state.

    There are ample evidences proving participation of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia in the hostile actions against Azerbaijan. Since, the scope of this report prevents from providing complete list of available evidences, below are just a few well-documented facts of direct military actions of Armenia.

    Thus, in January 1994 the Armed Forces of Azerbaijan defeated the sub-divisions of the separate motor-rifle regiment №. 555 (Army unit No. 59016) of the Republic of Armenia in the combat and captured several Armenian soldiers. According to the documents seized in the wake of the combat operation, one of the units of this regiment made a dash in April 1993 from the town of Vardenis in the Republic of Armenia to Kalbajar region of Azerbaijan with the purpose of backing-up the group of Armenia's occupation forces in this part of Azerbaijan. 

    Among the trophy captured during the combat operations in Kalbajar region of Azerbaijan there were combat maps with battle-orders addressed to the commander of the separate motor-rifle regiment № 555 and to the head of the operational group, signed by the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia, lieutenant-general G.Andresian, as well as working combat maps of the officers of the 3rd motor-rifle battalion of the 3rd separate motor-rifle brigade of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia. These maps are marked on with hand-written decision to launch an assault and seize Kalbajar region of Azerbaijan on 1 April 1993. 

    Azerbaijani troops seized also many personal documents of the citizens of the Republic of Armenia drafted into the military and sent to Azerbaijan to participate in the combat operations. Among them are national passports, military ID's issued by the different drafting bodies of the Republic of Armenia (“military commissariats”), call-up papers for joining military service and participation in the military musters issued by drafting bodies of different districts of the Republic of Armenia, official ID's of employees of the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Armenia, special contracts for the service in the Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia, travel warrants, petitions for conferring military ranks, drafting warrants, leave warrants and vocation passes.  

    In 1992-1994, Armenian Armed Forces occupied administrative districts of the Republic of Azerbaijan as follows:

    May, 1992 – Shusha district;

    May, 1992 – Lachyn district situated between the former NKAO and the Republic of Armenia;

    April, 1993 – Kalbajar district (between the former NKAO and Armenia, to the north of Lachyn);

    July, 1993 – Aghdam district;

    August, 1993 – Fuzuli district;

    August, 1993 – Jabrayil district;

    August, 1993 – Gubadly district;

    October, 1993 – Zangilan district.

    On 30 April 1993, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution № 822, demanding immediate withdrawal of all occupying forces from Kalbajar and other recently occupied areas of Azerbaijan.

    On 29 July 1993, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution № 853, which demanded “the immediate, complete and unconditional withdrawal of occupying forces involved from the district of Aghdam and other recently occupied districts of the Republic of Azerbaijan”.

    On 14 October 1993, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution № 874, which called for “immediate implementation of the reciprocal and urgent steps provided for in the CSCE Minsk Group's adjusted timetable, including the withdrawal of forces from recently occupied territories”.

    On 11 November 1993, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution № 884, which condemned the occupation of Zangilan district and Horadiz town, attacks on civilians and bombardments of the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan and demanded the unilateral withdrawal of occupying forces from Zangilan district and Horadiz, and the withdrawal of occupying forces from other recently occupied territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

    In sum, the ongoing armed conflict in and around the Nagorno-Karabakh region of the Republic of Azerbaijan has resulted in the occupation of almost one-fifth of the territory of Azerbaijan and made approximately one out of every eight persons in the country an internally displaced person or refugee, 20,000 people were killed, 50,000 people were wounded or became invalids, about 5,000 citizens of Azerbaijan are still missing.

    The aggression against the Republic of Azerbaijan has severely damaged the socio-economic sphere of the country. In the occupied territories 871 settlements, including 11 towns, 848 villages, hundreds of hospitals and medical facilities have been burned or otherwise destroyed. Hundreds of thousands of houses and apartments, thousands of social and medical buildings have been destroyed or looted. Hundreds of libraries have been plundered, a great deal of valuable manuscripts have been burned or otherwise destroyed. Several State theatres, hundreds of clubs and dozens of musical schools have been destroyed. Several thousands of manufacturing, agricultural and other kinds of factories and plants have been pillaged. Hundreds kilometers-long irrigation system have been totally destroyed. Flocks of several hundreds of thousands of sheep and dozens of thousands of cattle have been driven out of the occupied territories to Armenia. 

    About 70% of summer pastures of Azerbaijan remain in the occupied zone. The regional infrastructure, including hundreds of bridges, hundreds of kilometers of roads and thousands kilometers of water pipelines, thousands kilometers of gas pipelines and dozens of gas distribution stations, have all been destroyed.

    The war against Azerbaijan has also had catastrophic consequences for its cultural heritage both in the occupied territories and in Armenia. 

    According to the preliminary data, the overall damage inflicted on the Republic of Azerbaijan as a result of Armenian aggression is estimated to be tens of billions USD.

    On 12 May 1994, the ceasefire was established. However, Armenia continues to violate the truce. Since summer of 2003 there has been an acute increase in ceasefire violations by the Armenian side. In addition to shelling and killing Azerbaijani soldiers along ceasefire line, Armenians also attack civilians in the adjacent territories.



  • Karabakh in 1920-1980

    Karabakh in 1920-1980

    With the strengthening of Soviet government the process of restoration of the tsarist Russian border began. The 11th Red Army concentrated its forces on northern borders of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and received several orders and decrees for the occupation of Azerbaijan. The powers which supported the Soviet state within the Azerbaijan Parliament and the March revolt of Armenian Dashnak separatists in Karabakh accelerated the overthrow of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic existed for 23 months and was overthrown by the 11th Red Army and the Soviet government was established in the Northern Azerbaijan. Thus, the situation around Karabakh entered a new stage.

    Daghlig Garabagh: geography and the concept of Daghlig Garabagh. For lightning this problem let's first stay on the geography of Daghlig Garabagh and the concept "Daghlig Garabagh.

    The territory of Karabakh is divided into plains and mountainous areas for its landscape. This is a scientifically approved fact. Thus, A.M.Skibitski, the son of the famous Caucasus scientist M.A.Skibitski in his artcle entitled "The Caucasus revolt" said: "The mountainous region of Karabakh Khanate was once called Daghlig Garabagh. It comprised of an area between the Karabakh mountains on the east and the Zangezur mountains on the west, as well as the Karabakh plateau, separating Daghlig Garabagh from plain Lower Karabakh". As seen, due to the fact that the lands of the Karabakh khanate as part of Tsarist Russia were subject to to different administrative divisions, the concept of Karabakh had lost its original administrative-political meaning. However, in periods of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920) the concept of Karabakh acquired its initial definition. As seen from the foregoing viewpoint of S.Shaduns, the term of Daghlig Garabagh was established by Dashnaks at that very time.

    Since that time the concept of "Daghlig Garabagh" acquired not only geographical but also political importance. With the establishment of the Bolshevik power in North Azerbaijan this concept became important from the administrative and political point of view and turned to the principal concept in the political lexicon of Azeri-Armenian relations and Russia, which backed the latter. At that time the surrounding of Daghlig Garabagh changed geographically. Again we refer to the writings of A.M.Skibitski that are as follows: "…The Karabakh plateau was attached the status of autonomy in 1923 and was called the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh or briefly "Daghlig Garabagh" within the new bounds of Azerbaijan.

    On 28 April 1920, the Soviet Socialist Republic of Azerbaijan (hereinafter – Azerbaijan SSR) was established. The facts illustrate that over the 70-years of the Soviet rule the Armenians succeeded in expanding their territory at the expense of Azerbaijan and expelling the Azerbaijanis from their historical lands. During this period, aforementioned policy was implemented systematically and methodically. As a result, the territory of Azerbaijan, which in 1918-1920 constituted 114.000 sq.km, was reduced to 86.600 sq.km during the Soviet rule.

    On 30 November 1920, the western part of the Zangazur uezd was included in Armenia. As a result, Nakhchyvan region was cut off from the mainland of Azerbaijan.

    On 13 October 1921, the Treaty of Friendship between the Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR and Georgian SSR, on the one hand, and Turkey, on the other, was concluded in Kars with the participation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. In Article 5 of the Treaty the Governments of Turkey, Armenia, and Azerbaijan expressed their consent that “the Nakhchyvan oblast […] forms an autonomous territory under the protection of Azerbaijan”. 

    From 12 March 1922 to 5 December 1936 Azerbaijan was a part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republics (hereinafter - TSFSR). Until the admission of Azerbaijan into the TSFSR, Basarkechar region of New-Bayazid uezd of the Russian Empire borders and 2/3 of Sharur-Daralayaz uezd were already included in Armenia. After the admission of Azerbaijan into the TSFSR a considerable portion of Gazakh uezd, a number of villages from Jabrayil uezd and the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Nakhchyvan (hereinafter - Nakhchyvan ASSR) were included in Armenia.

    On the pretext of resettling the Armenians coming from abroad, the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted on 23 December 1947 and 10 March 1948 special decisions on the resettlement of collective farm workers and the other Azerbaijani population from the Armenian SSR to the Kur-Araz lowlands in the Azerbaijan SSR. Under these decisions, during the period between 1948 and 1953 more than 100,000 Azerbaijanis were forcibly resettled from their historical homelands – the mountainous regions of Armenia – to the then waterless steppes of Mughan and the Mil plateau.

    The Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of Azerbaijan SSR

    As far as Nagorno-Karabakh is concerned, in response to territorial claims of the Armenian SSR regarding this region of Azerbaijan, on 5 July 1921, the Caucasian Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist (bolshevik) Party decided that:

    Taking into consideration the necessity of national peace between the Muslims and the Armenians, the importance of the economic relations between Upper and Lower Karabakh and the permanent relations of Upper Karabakh with Azerbaijan, Nagorno-Karabakh shall be retained within the boundaries of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Azerbaijan and broad autonomy shall be given to Nagorno-Karabakh with Shusha city as an administrative center.”

    On 7 July 1923, the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) was established in the mountainous part of Karabakh, where majority of population was Armenian. The town of Khankandi was defined as the administrative centre of the autonomy. In September 1923, the name of the town was changed to Stepanakert after Stepan Shaumian, dashnak and “bolshevik” leader.

    Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO)is in the South-eastern part of the Minor Caucasus.Lesser Caucasus in the south-eastern part of the region. The landscape is mostly daghqdır. Murovdagh the northern part of the province of the chain (Gamıs the highest peak of Lesser Caucasus mountain - 3,724 m) in the southern slopes of the central, western and southern parts of the northern slopes of the Karabakh Range (Gizgala mountain - 2,843 m, Qirkhqiz mountain - 2,827 m, the Great Kirs mountain - 2,725 m) the north-eastern part of the plain (the western edge of the plains of Karabakh and Mil) holds.

    The borders of the NKAO were defined in a way to ensure the majority to the Armenian population.National composition of Daghlig Garabagh Autonomous Province (by a census enumeration: thousand people)


    National composition













    Whole population




































    (Taken from Достижения Нагорного Карабаха в девятой пятилетке. Стат. сб. Степанакерт, 1976, с.8, Самедзаде З. Нагорный Карабах: Неизвестное о некоторых аспектах социально-экономического и демографического развития региона, Баку, 1995, с.31.)

    According to the population census of 12 January 1989, the population of the autonomous oblast was around 189,000 persons; of them: around 139,000 Armenians – 73,5 %, around 48,000 Azerbaijanis – 25,3 %, around 2 000 representatives of other nationalities – 1,2 %. At the same time, about 200,000 Azerbaijanis compactly resided in Armenia at that time were refused even cultural autonomy both on the part of the USSR central government, and the government of the Armenian SSR.

    The allegations of discrimination against the Armenian population of Nagorno-Karabakh do not stand up to scrutiny. In reality, the NKAO possessed all essential elements of self-government. 

    The status of Nagorno-Karabakh as an autonomous oblast within the Azerbaijan SSR was stipulated in the Constitutions of the USSR of 1936 and 1977. In accordance with the Constitutions of the USSR and the Azerbaijan SSR, the legal status of the NKAO was governed by the Law “On the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast”, which was adopted by the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR on 16 June 1981 following its submission by the Soviet of People's Deputies of the NKAO. As a national territorial unit, the NKAO enjoyed a form of administrative autonomy and accordingly, had a number of rights, which in practice, ensured that its population's specific needs were met. Under the Constitution of the former USSR, the NKAO was represented by five deputies in the Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. It was represented by 12 deputies in the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR.

    The Soviet of People's Deputies of the NKAO — the government authority in the region — had a wide range of powers. It decided all local issues based on the interests of citizens living in the oblast and with reference to its national and other specific features. Armenian language was used in the work of all government, administrative and judicial bodies and the Procurator's Office, as well as in education, reflecting the language requirements of the majority of the region's population. Local TV and radio broadcasts, publication of newspapers and magazines in the Armenian language were guaranteed in the NKAO. 

    In the period 1971 to 1985, 483 million rubles of capital investment were channeled into the development of the NKAO, 2.8 times more than in the previous 15-year period. Over the preceding 20 years, the volume of per capita capital investment had increased nearly fourfold (226 rubles in 1981-1985 against 59 rubles in 1961-1965). Over the preceding 15 years, per capita housing construction had amounted to 3.64 square meters in Azerbaijan as a whole, whereas for the NKAO the figure was 4.76 square meters. The number of hospital beds per 10,000 inhabitants was 15 per cent higher than in the rest of the republic. 

    The NKAO ranked relatively high among the republic's regions in terms of the number of pre-school places available. Thus, in the period 1971 to 1985 the increase in the number of places in children's institutions per 10,000 inhabitants in the oblast was 1.4 times of the average for the republic. The same is true of the increase in the number of places per 10,000 inhabitants in schools providing general education, the NKAO being ahead by a factor of 1.6. 

    The fact that provision of housing, goods and services was superior to that in the republic as a whole was typical of the social and cultural development of the oblast. Per capita living space in apartment buildings in the region was almost one third greater than the average for the republic, while rural dwellers had 1.5 times more living space than peasants in the republic as a whole. 

    The population of the oblast had access to greater numbers of medium-level medical personnel (1.3 times more) and hospital beds (3 per cent more). There was a more extensive network of institutions providing cultural and information services (more than three times the number of cinemas and clubs and twice as many libraries), and there were 1.6 times more books and magazines per 100 readers. 

    In fact, the NKAO was developing more rapidly than Azerbaijan as a whole. For example, whereas industrial output in the republic increased threefold between 1970 and 1986, in the NKAO it grew by a factor of 3.3 (the rate of growth there was 8,3 per cent higher). In 1986, 3.1 times more fixed capital assets were brought into use in the oblast than in 1970; in the republic the figure was 2.5. As far as basic social development indicators were concerned, the NKAO exceeded the average republic-wide standard of living indicators in the Azerbaijan SSR. There was significant progress in the development of cultural establishments, both in the oblast and throughout the republic. 

    In the 1988/89 school year, there were 136 secondary general education schools in Nagorno-Karabakh using Armenian as the language of instruction (16,120 pupils) and 13 international schools (7,045 pupils). In Azerbaijan as a whole during that school year, there were 181 Armenian schools (20,712 pupils) and 29 international schools (12,766 pupils). The State Pedagogical Institute in Khankandi had more than 2,130 students, mostly Armenian, studying in its Azerbaijani, Armenian and Russian divisions. In addition, Nagorno-Karabakh had dozens of specialized secondary schools and vocational training institutes offering instruction in Armenian and Russian.

    Five independent periodicals appeared in the Armenian language. Unlike other administrative territorial units of Azerbaijan located far from the capital of the republic in mountainous areas, the NKAO was equipped with technical infrastructure for receiving television and radio programmes.

    As has been seen above, and as the existence and development of the NKAO within Azerbaijan confirms, the form of autonomy that had evolved fully reflected the specific economic, social, cultural and national characteristics of the population and the way of life in the autonomous region. 

    Armenians in Baku in 1828 in the absence of any registered 170 thousand in 1988, there were 130 thousand Armenians registration. 500 thousand Armenians living in the country. The 500 thousand Armenian Azerbaijani trade, government offices and businesses occupied the leading positions. Baku, the Azerbaijan Communist Party Central Committee and the Committee for a long time secretaries (the first secretary), the Central Executive Committee of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, the Supreme Soviet, the Council of People's Commissars, the Council of Ministers, deputy director, division chiefs, ministers, heads of committee chairmen and other key positions in the management worked. Baku, the Azerbaijan communist Party Central Committee and the Committee for a long time secretaries (the first secretary), the Central Executive Committee of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, the Supreme Soviet, the Council of People's Commissars, the Council of Ministers, Deputy Director , Division Chiefs, ministers, heads of committee chairmen and other key positions in the management worked

    The Armenians of the great posts in Azerbaijan until 1990

    1. A.A.Ayriyan – Minister of Forestry and Wood Processing Industry of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic;
    2. V.N.Nersesyan - Kirov district of Baku city, Fisrt Secretary of the Party Committee;
    3. N.V.Gabrielyan – vice- chairman of “Azerittifag”
    4. A.S.Bejanyan -- Investigation Department of the Prosecutor's Office of Azerbaijan SSR, prosecutor
    5. S.M.G.Ohanjanyan – Azerkendkimya Association, First Deputy Chairman
    6. B.A.Ayrapetov - Deputy Chairman of the Baku City Executive Committee, Chairman of the Department of City Planning;
    7. J.S.Sarkisova –prosecutor at Monitoring Department for Criminal Cases in the Courts of Baku City Prosecutor's Office
    8. R.M.Gazaryan – Proecutor at Monitoring Department over the observance of laws in Rehabilitation Institutions
    9. N.A.Melkumyan - the chief accountant of the Prosecutor's Office of Azerbaijan SSR. .  .
    10. L.V.Ohanesyan - Baku city Prosecutor's Office chief of special and common unit;
    11. A.S.Gevorkyan - Director of Office of Public Prosecutor of the Azerbaijan SSR;
    12. E.S.Gasparyan - assistant prosecutor in charge of monitoring the implementation of traffic laws;
    13. E.S.Petrosyan - Inspector's Office of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic;
    14. O.V.Parsadanov - Department of the Prosecutor of the State Security Committee;
    15. A.A.Arzumanyan - Baku Repair Building Trust Director, Member of City Council;
    16. A.S.Hambarsumov - Bureau of the Communist Party of Lenin district committee member and chairman of the party, as well as, the District Party Committee;
    17. R.S.Baghiryants – “Xazarneftqazsanaye” Industry Association of the Soviet Union, deputy chief, Candidate of Economic Sciences, an honorary fellow of the Soviet gas industry;
    18. M.B.Bunyatyan –Industrial Construction Bank of the USSR, Operating Office Chairman;
    19. L.I.Vartapetyan - 1st Deputy Chief of Baku water pipeline, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic of housing and communal services worker;
    20. S.N.Haykazyan – chief engineer of Baku Gaz Production Department
    21. V.P.Yegizarov – Deputy Chairman of the Ezecutive Committee of the Soviet of People's Deputies of Lenin district
    22. A.X. Ohanyan –  chief engineer of the Sanitation Department
    23. R.V. Safaryan – Construction office complex brigade-learder at  Social and Cultural Facilities Construction Trust No.9, a member of Communist Party of Baku City Committee
    24. N.R. Shahnazaryan – Chairman of the Executive Committee of the People's Deputy Council of Nizami district

    Source :


    Yusif Gazıyev, Armenian Case, Baku, 2009

  • Karabakh in period of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920)

    Karabakh in period of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920)

    Releasing from the thraldom of the Russian Empire, which lasted for approximately 120 years, the Azerbaijani people established a new independent state in the Northern Azerbaijan. The Declaration of Independence of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic stated that the lands of Northern Azerbaijan, once occupied by Russia in accordance with the Gulistan (1813) and Turkmenchay (1828) agreements are the legal heritage of Azerbaijani people. The first article of the declaration read: "Beginning from this day the people of Azerbaijan will have their sovereign rights. Azerbaijan, that consists of Eastern and Southern Transcaucasia, is a legal independent state".

    The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic issued its politically and legally substantiated map. It tried to spread its power on the entire historical area of Karabakh. At that time the newly established Republic of Armenia laid its groundless claims to Karabakh, but the government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic opposed these claims. During the talks with the Foreign Minister of the Ottoman state in Istanbul, November 18th 1918, A.M.Topchubashov (1862-1934), the chair of the Parliament of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic said: "The Karabakh issue raised by Armenians does not concern only 5 or 10 villages, it covers all four districts: Shusha, Djavanshir, Djebrail and Zangezur. This territory belongs to only one nation and even though the number of Moslems and Armenians is not equal, there is no reason to talk in terms of domination of Armenians, because they are not native residents of these areas. These are those moving to the region from Turkey after the war with Russia…Finally, Armenians do not live separately in Karabakh itself, they form mixed settlements with Azerbaijanis. Nevertheless, we stand for the peaceful settlement of the problem".

    Armenians continued previously committed acts of genocide for the occupation of Karabakh in the period of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic as well. Taking into account the established situation, the government of Azerbaijan created a Karabakh governorship-general dealing with the accidents in Shusha, Djavanshir, Djebrail and Zangezur in January, 1919 and appointed Kh.Sultanov the governor-general of Karabakh. The Foreign Minister of Armenia expressed his discontent with the establishment of the governorship-general, yet the response of Azerbaijani government considered the protest to be baseless and stated that these areas are the integral part of the Azerbaijan Republic. Karabakh governorship-general had to carry out its activity in conditions of the struggle against Armenia's claims and the tense relations first with Englishmen and then with Americans. However, Armenians did not give a chance to establish peace in the region of Karabakh governorship-general.

    In late 1919-the spring of 1920 the armed brigands of Armenian dashnaks attacked the civil inhabitants of Zangezur and committed mass bloodshed.

    Armenians were also active in Djavanshir district. Their attacks to the foothill villages of Djavanshir became habitual. In spring-summer of 1918 Armenian brigands committed numerous acts of violence against the Muslim residents of the flat regions of Djavanshir. "Armenians, changed the direction of the Tartar river thus cutting off the water supply to the Aran village inhabitants and causing a great damage to them. The situation deteriorated to the level when villagers did not have enough fresh water to drink".

    Another district of Karabakh-Djebrail was also subject to Armenians' armed attacks. They intensified their attacks on Djabrail in December of 1918, while in early 1919 the aggression acquired more destructive nature.

    The barbarism of Armenians acquired a more violent form in Shusha, the political center of Shusha province and Karabakh.

    In period of the Azerbaijan Democratic republic the meanest armed revolt of Armenians tool place during the traditional festivity of Azeri people Novruz in Shusha on March 22, 1920. This separatist revolt was proposed by Bolsheviks, preparing to occupy Azerbaijan. Despite the suppression of separatist revolts in a number of regions they managed to invade the tower of Askeran. As a result of military-political measures Azerbaijan Democratic Republic restored the sovereign rights of Karabakh. However, the separatist revolts and genocides committed by Armenians, betraying the country they resided in, on the eve of April, 1920's occupation, stroke a hard blow to the defense of northern borders of the country and intensified the overthrow of the independent Azeri state-the Azerbaijan Independent Republic.

    Source: Yagub Mahmudov, Karim Shukurov  Garabagh - Real history, facts, documents, Baku – 2005


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